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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




TWENTY-5EeeN» ANNUAL REPORT 



OP THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF ONTARIO 



1890. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 




TORONTO : 

PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 68 AND 70 FRONT STREET WEST, 

1891. 



TABLE OF 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Agrotis clandestina 50 

" ypsilon 50 

Auisopteiyx pometaria V7 

" vernata , 77 

Annual address of President 4 

" meeting of Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists .... 37 
meeting of Entomological So- 
ciety of Ontario 3 

||^ " report of Council 11 

statement of Treasurer 15 

Ant-hills and slugs 90 

Anthomyia betas 103 

" brassicse 45 

" radicum 45 

" raphani 44 

Apanteles militaris 53 

Aphides 40, 46 

" parasites of 71, 87 

Apple, insects injurious to the 104 

Apple-tree borer, parasite of 70 

Aramigus Fulleri 62 

Arctia Saundersii 17 

Arctic f rms, origin and perpetuation 

of 59 

Argynnis adiante 97 

" alcestis 97 

aphrodite 17, 97 

" atossa 97 

j " cipris 97 

I Army- worm, outbreak of, in Maryland 51 

I " parasites of 53, 67 

Arsenites and honey-bees 89 

" experiments with 88 

Ashmead, W. H. , article by 52 

Asymetiy of head, etc, of thysanop- 

tera 27 

Australian insects and fungus pests. . . 99 

Bark beetles 75 

Bean louse 46 

" weevil 102 



Page. 

Beet fly 103 

' ' leaf miner . . . . , 45 

Bethune, Rev. C. J. S., articles by 

4, 97, 98, 99 

Birds, insectivorous 90 

Black-knot 8 

Blister-beetle, ash-coloured 48 

Book notices 97 

Bracon charus 70 

Braconidss 69 

Butterflies of Eastern United States . . 9 

" North America 9, 97 

" India, Burmah & Ceylon. 99 

White Mountains 20 

Cabbage butterfly 48 

parasite of 72 

" insects 45, 48, 102 

*' plusia 49 

Canker worms 34, 77 

Carrot fly 102 

Caulfield, F. B., articles by 55, 73 

Cave fauna of North America 97 

Cermatia forceps 34 

Cephus pygmpeus , 91 

Chalcididse 71 

Chalcis flavipes 71 

Chelyniorpha argus 56 

Chinch-bugs, destruction of 93 

Chionobas semidea 20, 60 

Chortophila betarum 46 

Cincindela purpurea 17 

Cimbex Americana, parasite of 67 

Clarkson, F., article by 19 

Coccinella novemnotata 19, 88 

Codling moth 99, 104 

" parasites of 69, 70 

Cold, resistance to by caterpillar .... 90 
Coleopterous larva, peculiar form of . . 28 

Colorado potat>o-beetle 46 

Comstock, Prof. J. H,, article by. . . . 91 
Cook, Prof. A. J., article by S2 



IV. 



Page. 

Ooptocycla aurichalcea 57 

" clavata 

guttata 56 

Coreus tristis 7 

Cotton moth, parasites of 71, 72 

CryptinjB fi6 

Cryptus extrematis 67 

Cucumber beetle 47 

Cut-worms 6, 43, 49 

Cynipida3 65 

Daddy long-legs 103 

Danais archippus : 20 

Davis, W. T., anicle by 92 

Day in the woods 16 

Debis Portlandia 17 

Diabrotica vittata 47 

Doryphora decem-lineata 46 

Downy mildew of grape 8 

Dryobius sex-fasciatus = 74 

Dularius brevilineus 74 

Economic Entomologists, Association of 37 

Election of officers 3, 15, 35, 40 

Elm, insects injurious to the 73 

Elm-tree borer 73, 74 

Enemies of grain aphis 87 

Entomological Club of A. A. A. S 21 

Ephestia kuhniella 10 

Ephialtes irritator 68 

Epirrita dilutata 77 

Eudryas grata 7 

Eustrotia caduca 29 

Evaniidse 66 

Fall web -worm 7 

Flea beetle, the striped 48 

Fletcher, J., articles by. .21, 37, 62, 97, 101 

Foenus incertus 66 

" tarsatorius 66 

Fuller's Rose-beetle 62 

Fyles, Rev. T.W., articles by. . 16, 44, 57, 78 

Gall insects 65 

Garman, H., articles by ^. 27, 87 

Gelechia gallae-diplopappi 18 

Gillette , Prof. , article by 88 

Gooseberry saw-fly 104 

Grain aphis, enemies of 6, 87 

Grapta comma 76 

gracilis 17 

" interrogationis 75 

" progne 75 



Page. 

Hadena amica 49 

" devastatrix 49 

Haltica striolata 48 

Hargitt, Prof., article by 34 

Harrington, W. H. , article by 64 

Hessian fly 5, 25, 103, 105 

Honey bees and arsenical spraying ... 89 

Hop aphis 103 

Hoplismenus morulus 66 

Hornet, habits of a 92 

Hybernia defoliaria 104 

Hylesinus opaculus 75 

Hymenoptera parasitica 64 

Hyphantria textor 7 

Ibalia maculipennis 65 

Ichneumon grandis 66 

Ichneumonidae 66 

Infectious diseases of insects 35, 93 

IsQsoma hordei 72 

Kitchen-garden pests 44 

Larch saw-fly 7 

Lema trilineata 47 

Leucania unipuncta 51 

Leucopsis affinis 71 

Macrobasis unicolor ' 48 

Macrocentrus delicatus 70 

Mallophaga, development of 29 

Manual of Injurious insects. Ormerod. 101 

Mediterranean flour moth 10 

Moff"at, J. A., articles by 51, 59 

Monohammus confusor, parasite of . . . 68 

" scutellatus, " ... 68 

Mononychus vulpeculus, " ... 69 

Murtfeldt, Miss M. E., article by 30 

Nematus erichsonii 7, 43 

Neoclytus erythrocephalus 75 

Nconympha cauthus 17, 97 

Observations from box of White Moun- 
tain cuach 19 

(Ecanthus niveus 75 

Onion fly 44, 104 

Opheltes glaucopterus 67 

Ophion biiineatum 67 

' ' macrurum 67 

" purgatum 67 

OphioiiinsB 67 

Organization of sections 21 



V. 



Page. 

Ormerod, Miss, article by - 105 

Osborn, Prof. , articles by 28, 29, 35 

Oscinis 25, 42 

Papilio Asterias, parasite of - 66 

Parasitic hymenopt era 64 

Pear blight 104 

Pelecinus pol\ turator 72 

Phlaeotribus liminaris 75 

Phorbia ceparum 44, 104 

Physonotus helianthi 55 

Pieris bryoniae 60 

" rapse 48,72 

Pimpla annulipes 69 

' ' conquisitor 69 

" pedalis 69 

*' pterelas 69 

Pimplinse 68 

Plusia serea 68 

*' sereoides 58 

" ampla 57 

balluca 57 

" bimaculata 58 

" brassicae 49, 58 

falcifera 58 

' ' mappa , 58 

" mortuorum 57 

' ' precationis .... 58 

" Putnami 57 

" Quebec representatives of genns 57 

*' simplex 58 

*' thyatiroides 57 

U-aureum 58 

" viridisignata 58 

Plum curculio, parasites of 39, 67, 70 

Plutella cruciferarum 42, 104 

Potato beetle, Colorado 46 

" three-lined 47 

Preserving larvae, methods of 41 

Pteromalus piiparum 72 

Radish fly 44 

Rearing insects, experiences in 30 

Red spider 103 

Remedies for noxious insects 43, 102 

Report of Council 11 

Report of Delegate to Royal Society . 13 

" Montreal Branch 14 

Rhogas intermedins 70 

2* (EN.) 



Page. 

Rhyssa persuasoria 68 

Russian parasite of Hessian fly 105 

Saperda discoidea, parasite of 68 

" lateralis 74 

' ' tridentata 73 

Satyrodes Canthus , 17, 97 

Saw-fly borer in wheat 91 

Scudder, S. H., article by 99 

Semiotellus nigripes . . 105 

Shakespeare, Entomology of 78 

Sigalphus curculionis 70 

Siphonophora avense 6 

Smicra Mariae 71 

Snow, Prof. F. H., article by 93 

Spiders and their spinning- work, Mc- 

Cook 9, 98 

Squash-bug 7 

Stem eel-worm 103 

Stizus speciosus 92 

Teaching Entomology 23 

Telea polyphemus, parasite of 67 

Tent caterpillars 7 

" " parasites of 67, 69 

Tetrastichus esurus 72 

Thalessa atrata 68 

*' lunator 68 

Thecla Titus 17 

Theronia fulvescens 69 

" melanocephala 69 

Thersilochus conotracheli 67 

Thrips 103 

Thyreodon morio 67 

Tiger beetles 17 

Tortoise beetles , 55 

Tremex Columba, parasite of 68 

Trichogramma minutum 72 

Trogus exesorius 66 

Trypeta solidaginis 72 

Tryphoninae 68 

Vanessa Antiopa 75 

Virginia Creeper moth 8 

Wheat, insects affecting ...... 25, 91, 103 

Wheat midge 103 

Wnite Mountain butterflies 20 

Wire worms 103 

Wood nymph moth 7 

Woolly aphis . •. 104 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO- 



To the Honourable the Minister of A griculture : 

Sir, — In accordance with the provisions of our Act of incorporation, I beg 
to present herewith the twenty-first annual report of the Entomological Society 
of Ontario. 

The report contains an account of the proceedings of our annual meeting for 
the election of officers and the transaction of the general business of the society, 
which was held in the city of London on the 27th of August, 1890; it includes 
also the audited financial statement of the Secretary-Treasurer, the reports of the 
Council and Montreal branch, the President's annual address, etc. 

I have also the honour to submit with the foregoing, several illustrated 
papers contributed by our members on injurious and other insects, which have 
been specially prepared for the information of the public, and are intended to 
assist our farmers and fruit-growers in contending with their insect enemies. 

The Society's monthly magazine. The Canadian Entomologist, has been 
regularly and promptly issued during the past year, and has just completed its 
twenty-second volume. It continues to receive contributions from all the most 
eminent Entomologists in North America, and to circulate in all parts of the 
world. During the past year it has been found necessary to issue more than 
twenty extra pages in order to find space for the many valuable articles which 
have been furnished the editor. 

It is a matter of profound thankfulness that our province, during the past 
year, has escaped from any serious insect attack. Those that have been specially 
noticeable are referred in the President's address, or described in the papers that 
follow. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. E. SAUNDERS, 

Secretary. 

1 (IN.) 

( 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 



The annual meeting of the Society was held in its own rooms in Victoria 
Hall, London, on Wednesday, August 27th, 1890. A Council meeting was held 
in the morning at 10 o'clock, at which the following members were present : — 
The President, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, head master of Trinity College School, Port 
Hope; Mr. James Fletcher, Ottawa; Mr. J. A. Moffat, Hamilton; Rev. T. W. 
Fyles, Quebec; Messrs. J. M. Denton, W. E. Saunders and Dr. Woolverton, Lon- 
don. The annual report of the Council was discussed and adopted, and other 
routine business was transacted. The Secretary-Treasurer presented his annual 
financial statement of the receipts and disbursements during the past year. The 
Council reported the purchase of a large collection of insects from Mr. JohHson 
Pettit, of Grimsby, which was deposited in the rooms of the Society. The arrange- 
ments for the formation of sections in different departments of natural science 
were laid before the Society by the President, and, on motion, duly approved and 
ratified. A scheme was submitted for the rearrangement of the work of the 
officers of the Society, in accordance with which Mr. J. A. Moffat, of Hamilton, is 
to take entire charge of the rooms, library and collections, and be a permanent 
resident official in London. A number of tenders for printing The Canadian 
Entomologist were received and considered ; no decision was made at the time, 
but subsequently it was resolved that the tender of the London Printing and 
Lithographing Company should be accepted. Certain regulations regarding the 
library and the use of the rooms were drawn up and adopted. 

In order to benefit members of the Society it was resolved that for a limited 
time the volumes of The Canadian Entomologist, III. to XXI. inclusive, should 
be sold at 75 cents each ; the annual reports for the following years : 1674, 1880, 
1882 to 1889, at 25 cents each ; and the new lists of labels for Coleoptera at 25 
cents per set, in each case strictly to members only. Applications for these pub- 
lications at the reduced rates should be made to the Secretary. 

It was resolved to separate the offices of Secretary and Treasurer, which 
have hitherto been held by one person. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 



The following gentlemen were elected officers for the ensuing year : — 

President— Kev. 0. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D.C.L., Port Hope. 

Vice-President— James Fletcher, F.R.S.C., Ottawa. 

Secretary — W, E. Saunders, London. 

Treasurer — J. M. Denton, London. 

Directors— Division 1— W. H, Harrington, Ottawa. 

Division 2— J. D. Evans, Sudbury. 

Division 3 — Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 

Division 4 — A, W. Hanham, Hamilton. 

Division 5— J. A. Moffat, London. 
Librarian and Curator— J. A. MoflFat, Lcndon. 

Editor of the Canadian Entomolagist — Rev. Dr. Bethune, Port Hope. 

Editing Committee— W. E. Saunders, London ; H. H. Lyman, Montreal ; Rev. T. W. Fyles 
South Quebec. 

Delegate to the Royal Society of Canada— Rev. T. W. Fyles. 
Auditors— J. H. Bowman, H. P. Bock, London. 



4 



After the completion of the necessary business of the Society, the rest of the 
Afternoon was devoted to the examination of the books and collections of the 
Society, and the consideration of specimens brought by the members. Among 
these may be mentioned some live ant-lions {Myrmelionidce) brought from 
Indiana by Mr. Fletcher ; a collection of Plusias, and other moths recently 
captured at Nepigon by Dr. Bethune, and some very interesting specimens of 
Lepidoptera, from the Province of Quebec, by Mr. Fyles. 

The meeting adjourned at 6 p.m. 



In the evening the Society held a public meeting in its rooms at 8 o'clock, 
which was largely attended by members and other friends from London and the 
neighbourhood. The Rev. Dr. Bethune, President of the Society, occupied the 
chair. After cordially welcoming those present, he proceeded to deliver the 
annual address upon the chief topics of interest in the Entomological world dur- 
ing the past year. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — Fifteen years have gone by since I last had the 
honour of addressing the members of the Society as its President. So long a period 
of time has naturally wrought great changes in our comparatively small circle of 
members, as well as in the world about us ; but I am happy to see here 
to-night some who were with us at our annual meeting in 1875, and to know 
that many others have continued ever since their active interest in the welfare of 
the Society and the advancement of entomological science. For twelve years the 
presidential chair was most worthily filled by our highly esteemed friend. Prof. 
Wm. Saunders, who only resigned it in order to devote his whole time and 
energies to the great and important work which he has undertaken as director of 
the experimental farms of the Dominion. His great success in this new office is 
well known to all who take an intelligent interest in the prosperity of our country. 

The removal of Prof. Saunders from an active share in the work of the 
Society seemed a very serious blow, and was certainly a very great loss, but 
happily we were able to find a worthy successor in the person of our excellent 
friend, Mr. James Fletcher, Dominion Entomologist and Botanist, who has so 
.zealously performed the duties appertaining to the office of president during the 
last three years. With such able men at its head during so long a period of time, 
it may be readily understood how substantial was the progress of the Society, 
and how high was the reputation it achieved both at home and abroad. 

The past year has been in some respects an eventful one in the history of the 
Society. In the month of April last I learned that Mr. Edmund Baynes Reed 
was about to leave this province and take charge of the meteorological station at 
Victoria, British Columbia. He was one of the original members, and for more 
than five and twenty years an active and zealous officer of the Society, filling at 
difierent times the positions of vice-president, secretary-treasurer, auditor, librarian 
and curator. To his energy it is due that we have obtained so large and valuable 
a collection of scientific books in our library ; he also contributed many excellent 
papers to our annual reports, while discharging various other useful functions in 
the interests of the Society. His removal from amongst us was so serious a 
matter that I came up to London to make arrangements for the future manage- 
ment of our afi'airs, as well as to say good-bye to an old and very dear friend. 
After much consultation with Mr. Reed and other members of the council, we 
devised a plan for the general conduct of the business of the Society which has 



5 



been laid before you to-day, and which has resulted in the appointment of Mr. J. 
A. Moffat to the permanent charge of our rooms, library, collections, etc. It will 
be a great advantage, we are sure, in many ways, to have a qualified person to 
look after our possessions, and to be on hand at stated times for the admission of 
members to the rooms, as well as to discharge the other duties appertaining to 
the position to which he has been appointed. 

While here in April last, a meeting of the local members of the society was 
held in order to consider a plan for the formation of sections which should include 
persons who took an interest in any department of Natural Science, and thus 
extend the operations of the society beyond the strict limits of entomology. The 
scheme which we agreed upon at that meeting was submitted to other members 
of the council for their approval, and has been fully ratified to-day. As its 
details have been laid before you already I need not repeat them here. It was 
very gratifying to learn that advantage was immediately taken of this arrange- 
ment, and within a few weeks active sections were formed with very satisfactory 
lists of members in the departments of Botany. Ornithology and Oology, Geology, 
and Microscopy. Man}^ new workers have now joined our ranks, among whom 
we are glad to welcome a large contingent of ladies. A great impetus will thus 
be given, we trust, to the study of natural science in all its departments in 
London and the neighbourhood, and we hope that new life and zeal will be 
infused into the older as well as the later members by active co-operation in the 
field, the cabinet and the study. 

Another matter upon which I may congratulate the society is the acquisition 
of the valuable collections of Coleoptera and other orders of insects, laboriously 
gathered together during many years by Mr. Johnson Pettit, an old and valued 
member of the society. Having ascertained that he was willing to part with 
his collections, I at once entered into correspondence with him, learned the sum 
for which he would be willing to transfer them to the society, and obtained the 
sanction of the members of the council for the purchase. Mr. Pettit was most 
reasonable in his terms when he understood the destination of the collections, and 
allowed us to have them at about half the price he would have asked from a 
private purchaser. Mr. Moffat did good service in the transaction by visiting 
Grimsby first to report upon the condition, quantity, etc., of the specimens, and 
subsequently by superintending their packing and removal to London. It is 
expected that during the coming winter he will be able in his capacity as curator, 
to dispose of many of the duplicates by sale or exchange for the benefit of the society. 

I may turn now from the consideration of our own concerns to matters 
Entomological affecting the country at large, and following the example of my 
predecessors in their presidential addresses, refer to the work of injurious insects 
in the garden, orchard and farm. The most important insect pest that requires 
the careful attention of our farmers is the well-known Hessian 
Fly (Cecidomyia destructor, Say) Fig. 1, which has made its 
unwelcome appearance in several parts of the Province. The 
attacks of this insect upon barley, rye, and wheat, are seldom 
noticed at first, as the creature is so minute and works out of 
sight, sucking the sap of the plant from the stem, but con- 
cealed from observation beneath the sheath of the leaf. Its 
depredations are usually made known by the breaking down 
and falliug over of the plant caused by the injury to 'the 
stem produced by the insect. There are two attacks in the 
year, one in the autumn, when the maggots may be found 
embedded in the crown of the root shoots of fall wheat ; the Fig. i. 

other in the summer, when it lies under the leaf-sheath above the first or second- 




6 



joint of the stem. When fully grown these larvge harden and turn brown, re- 
sembling " flax-seeds " in shape and colour, and in this stage are well-known to 
observant farmers. The tiny smoky-winged midges themselves, the parents of 
the destructive maggots, appear in April or May, and again in August, but are 
seldom noticed, except by entomologists, as they are so excessively minute, and 
require a lens for their identification. The eggs are scarlet in colour and are laid 
inside the leaves of the food plant. The most effective remedies for this pest are 
(1). The late sowing of fall wheat ; if this is postponed till about the last week in 
September the winged Hessian fly is gone before the young plant is sufficiently 
matured to receive its eggs ; (2) The careful burning of all screenings and other 
refuse from the threshing mill ; this will ensure the destruction of large quantities 
of the insect in the " flax-seed " state. It is well to do this whether the Hessian 
fly is known to be present or not ; (3). The burning of the stubble after the 
crop has been removed ; but if this is not practicable, it is well that the field 
should be harrowed in order to cause any fallen grain to grow at once and make 
what is called a " volunteer crop." This will be attacked by the fly as a suitable 
place for the deposit of the autumn eggs, and the brood thus produced can be 
readily destroyed by a later plowing after the maggots are hatched out ; (4) If 
a field is found to be infested, care should be taken to have such a rotation of 
crops that neither wheat, rye nor barley should be grown upon the same ground 
for at least another year ; (5). Good cultivation and plenty of manure will pro- 
duce a strong, healthy growth and enable many a plant to survive an attack 
that would be fatal to a less vigorous one. 

I have trespassed upon your patience to mention these well-known remedies 
because the subject is of such vast importance, and constant iteration is required 
in order that our farmers may be made familiar with the methods of treatment 
that have been found most satifactory. While much can be done to ward off the 
evil by an intelligent employment of these remedies, it is cheering to know that 
we do not entirely depend upon them for immunity, but that there are several 
minute parasitic insects which prey upon the Hessian-fly in its different stages, 
and in many instances prevent it from becoming a serious injury. During a recent 
visit to the central experimental farm at Ottawa, Mr. Fletcher showed me a num- 
ber of plants of barley that were attacked by the Hessian-fly, but in nearly 
every one that w^e pulled up we found a parasitic insect closely associated with the 
enemy and evidently doing good work in its destruction. 

Another insect that has been attacking grain in many parts of the Province 
is the Grain Aphis (Siphonophora avence, Fab.) As everyone who is in the least 
degree observant must be familiar with the appearance and habits of plant-lice, 
it is unnecessary to enter into any description of this insect here ; it will suflice 
to say that it is found of different colours, green, black, yellow or red, and that 
it attacks first the leaves of the plant and then the flowers and tender young 
grain, often causing very serious damage. This year it has appeared in many 
localities in Ontario, but it was at once attacked by its insect enemies, notably 
by the larvae and beetles of various species of " Lad}^ birds " (Coccinellidce), the 
grubs of Syrphus flies, and the Aphidius — a four- winged parasitic fly. These 
natural enemies speedily reduced the numbers of the plant-lice and prevented 
their attack from becoming serious. 

Cut-worms, the lai^^se of several species of night-flying moths, Fig. 2, {Agrotis, 
Hadena, Mamestra) have been abundant in all parts of the country, and especi- 
.ally injurious in gardens, but on the whole their attack has been much less 
serious than last year. This may perhaps be accounted for by the character of 



7 




Harris) has been 



the season ; the frequent rains during the spring and earlj" summer causing a 

vigorous growth in the young plants 
and carrying them quickly beyond the 
reach of injury, while the wet weather 
would probably interfere greatly with 
the comfort of the Cut-worms and 
their ability to attack. The use of 
poisoned traps, as recommended by Mr. 
Fletcher in his address last year, has 
Fig. 2. proved most effective wherever tried. 

I may repeat that they consist of loose 
bundles of weeds, clover or any succulent vegetation, which are tied together and 
then dipped into a strong mixture of Paris green and water, and scattered over 
the land three or four days before the crop is planted out or appears above the 
ground. 

The Tent-caterpillars (Clisiocampa) which are usually so abundant and so 
injurious to fruit trees in spring; and early summer have been remarkable for 
their absence or rarity, in all parts of Ontario. We hope, however, that all fruit 
growers and gardeners will be on the look out for them next spring and consign 
the webs and their inmates to a speedy destruction. 

The Fall web-worm. Fig. 3, {Hyphantria textor, 
exceedingly abundant in all parts of 
the Province that I have visited this 
year. I do not think that this insect 
causes much serious injury to the trees 
it infests, as it comes so late in the 
-season when the leaves have to a 
large extent discharged their function 
as regards the growth and health of 
the tree, but it is a great eyesore 
with its unsightly webs, and should be 
got rid of by every tidy fruit-grower. 
Nothing is easier than to strip off 
the web and its living contents with 
the hands, or when out of reach, by 
means of a pole with a swab of any kind tied to the 

The larch saw-fly {Nematus Ericsonii), to which 
quently made of late years, has not been nearly so abundant as usual in those 
parts of Ontario where it has hitherto prevailed. It is to be hoped that its 
natural enemies have multiplied to a sufficient extent to keep it in subjection and 
prevent its undue increase. 

The squash-bug (Coreus tristis, De Geer), Fig. 4, has been very 
abundant and troublesome in many parts of Western Ontario 
this year. Where hand-picking and crushing under foot 
is impracticable, the insect may be readily destroyed by 
the application of a mixture of coal oil and sand, sprinkled 
over the stem and leaves nearest the root of the plant. 

T have this year found a new insect enemy in the caterpillars 
j.^^ of the beautiful wood-nymph moth {Eudryas grata, Fab.) Fig. 5 

• represents the caterpillar and moth. I have hitherto looked upon 
this lovely insect as an object of interest from its beauty and rarity, but this year 






Fig. 3. 



end. 

reference has been fre- 




8 



the caterpillars appeared in hundreds upon the Virginia creeper (Ampelopsm 
quinquefolia), which covers the front of our build- 
ing at Port Hope with its graceful foliage. No 
attention was paid to these creatures at first, but it 
suddenly became apparent that they were rapidly 
devouring the leaves, and rendering most unsightly 
what was before a beautiful mass of green. They 
began their work near the ground and proceeded 
upwards, devouring the leaves as they went. On 
the 9th of August I had the infested creepers 
sprinkled with Paris green and water. One appli- 
cation sufficed to exterminate the insects, and none 
were afterwards to be seen. I have mentioned this 
instance particularly in order to bring before you Fig. 5. 

the great advantage of using Paris green as a 

remedy for almost all leaf-eating insects — except, of course, those affecting 
cabbage and similar vegetables which are used as food. A judicious applica- 
tion of a very weak mixture will be found most efficacious. Proper care 
must, of course, be exercised when dealing with so virulent a poison. Its 
use as a remedy for the apple codling- worm and the plum curculio has now been 
fully demonstrated, and any fruit grower who will carefully follow out the direc- 
tions published in our annual reports will, we are confident, be amply rewarded. 
It is a subject of no little gratification to us that fruit-growers in England have 
been at last persuaded to try this remedy, and in every instance that we have 
heard of the experiment has been crowned with success. It required two or three 
years of persistent effort on the part of Miss Ormerod aided by Mr. Fletcher ta 
overcome the insular prejudice against adopting anything new and seemingly 
dangerous. Now that a beginning has been made, we hope for great results in 
the immediate future. 

Before leaving this practical portion of my address, I wish to refer to a kin-- 
dred, though not an entomological matter. I have noticed in many parts of 
Ontario an alarming increase of the fungus growth on plum and other fruit trees, 
commonly called the " black knot." An Act was passed by the Ontario Legisla- 
ture a few years ago ordering the cutting down and burning of all infested trees^, 
and imposing penalties for neglecting to do so ; but the law seems to be a dead 
letter and no one apparently dreams of enforcing it. It would be well for our 
municipal councils to irjstruct their path-masters and other officials to look after 
the black-knot and enforce the law wherever its provisions are neglected. If 
this is not done there will soon be no cherry or plum trees left in the country, as 
the disease rapidly spreads, and when once it attacks a tree it is almost hopeless 
to attempt a cure. 

Another fungus disease to which I may call your attention is the " downy 
mildew " of the grape. It is exceedingly injurious and very prevalent. Fortu- 
nately it may be readily checked by the use of the " Bordeaux mixture," and 
other compounds which fruit-growers have employed with great success. 

Turning now to what I may call the non-economic aspect of entomology— 
though all investigations into the habits and distribution of insects have their 
practical bearing at some time or other — it is worthy of remark that butterflies 
tave been extraordinarily scarce in Eastern Ontario this year. Whole days spent 
in collecting in localities where they were usually abundant have resulted in the 
capture of nothing worthy of mention. It is possible that the unwonted mild- 
ness of the winter, with its frequent changes from freezing to thawing, and the 
absence of snow, may have occasioned a great destruction among the hibernating 





9 



forms of diurnal lepidoptera. I am the more inclined to give credit to this 
cause, as I found recently at Nepigon and Port Arthur, where the winter was 
quite as severe and prolonged as usual, butterflies were remarkably abundant, and 
could be found in hundreds whenever the sun was shining. Among other inter- 
esting captures at Nepigon, which has now become a famous hunting-ground, and 
where the butterfly collector, careering in hot haste with net in hand after a 
specimen, is not regarded as an escaped lunatic, as he would be in most parts of 
the country, but as a scientist engaged in quite as praiseworthy an occupation 
as trout-fishing — among my captures I may mention a number of specimens of 
Plusia belonging to several different species. As I only returned a few days 
ago I have not had time to get them identified, but I have brought several of 
them here for inspection. They were very active indeed upon the flowers 
of thistles and golden rod, flitting swiftly from one to another in the 
hot sun. 

Since our last annual meeting many important additions have been made to 
entomological literature. Mr. Scudder's grand work on " The Butterflies of the 
Eastern United States and Canada" was completed last September. It forms three 
large volumes, containing 2,000 pages and nearly a hundred plates and maps, about 
forty of which are coloured. It is truly a magnificent work and a monument of 
patient labor and careful scientific investigation. However much we may differ 
from the author on such vexed questions as generic nomenclature, the sequence 
of families, and the like, we must express our unbounded admiration for his ability 
and learning, and the excellence of his work. The long pages of descriptive 
matter are enlivened by essays on all manner of subjects connected with butterfly 
life, written in a particularly charming style, and to each chapter is prefixed a 
stanza or two of poetry, so apt and so beautiful, that one is lost in wonder at the 
diversity and extent of the author's acquaintance with literature. This feature 
of the work renders it available for all lovers of natural history, even though 
they may take no special interest in butterflies. The author has published the 
work at a large pecuniary sacrifice. The list of subscribers is strangely small, 
but we hope that ere long librarians everywhere will find out that without a copy 
of Scudder's butterflies their collection of books is very incomplete. 

Self-sacrifice in the publication of entomological literature is the order of 
the day. A similar tale has to be told of the authors of the next two books that 
I wish to refer to. Mr. W. H. Edwards continues to issue his lovely illustrations 
of the "Butterflies of North America." The coloured figures of these insects in all 
their stages are the most perfect and the most beautifully executed that I have 
ever seen. Nine parts of the third series have now been issued, and the tenth is 
almost ready ; but at what a cost to the author 1 In order to accomplish this 
stupendous work he has been obliged to dispose of his collections and nearly all 
his books — a sacrifice that would be heart-breaking to most of us. 

The other work to which I referred is the Rev. Dr. McCook's " American 
Spiders and their Spinning Work," the second volume of which has just been 
issued. When complete the work will consist of three large quarto volumes, pro- 
fusely illustrated with wood cuts and some coloured lithographic plates. It is 
written in a most interesting manner, and while thoroughly scientific, is so 
popularly and clearly expressed that it may be read with ease and delight by 
any one who cares to learn about the strange habits and peculiar life-history of 
these singular creatures. When finished it will certainly be the most complete 
and perfect work on spiders in the English language. In this case, too, the author 
is publishing at his own expense and does not expect to be reimbursed for his 



10 



outlay. All these works, I am glad to say, will be found in our Society's library 
and are available for the use of the members. 

Serial publications on North American entomology continue to be represented 
by the Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Philadelphia; 
Psj/che, Cambridge. Mass. ; Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Insect 
Life, Washington, D.O., and our own Canadian Entomologist. Another addition 
has been made to the list this year by the issue of Entomological News and Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. The working entomologist can hardly do without any of these 
publications ; each one occupies its own special field, and all are valuable and 
interesting. Our own magazine, now in its twenty-second volume, continues to 
be issued with regularity, and, I am happy to say, receives contributions from all 
the most eminent entomologists in North America, and occasionally from others 
in Europe. 

The study of economic entomology has been making vast strides during the 
last few years, owing to the establishment of experimental agricultural stations 
in all the States of the Union, and the appointment in many of them of a skilled 
entomologist. The bulletins issued from these stations and the central depart- 
ment at Washington are too numerous to mention in detail ; they are replete 
with useful information and interesting records of experiments and observations. 
That the work is eminently scientific is shown by the names of those employed, 
for instance. Dr. Riley, Mr. Howard, Dr. Lintner, Professors Forbes, Cook, Smith, 
Fernald, Webster, Weed. These names, and many others, are familiar to us all 
aa men of distinction in their several localities and departments. 

In our own country much valuable work is being done by Mr. Fletcher, the 
Dominion Entomologist at Ottawa, not only by his investigations and the pub- 
lished results, but also by the addresses which he gives in different places to the 
meetings of Farmers' Institutes. He is in this way diffusing throughout the 
country a knowledge of friends and foes amongst insects, and the best modes of 
encouraging the former and exterminating the latter. The result of his work 
must in course of time be the saving of hundreds of thousands of dollars to the 
farmers and fruit-growers of the Dominion. 

In England Miss Ormerod continues her unselfish devotion to the cause of 
economic entomology. Her annual reports are full of very valuable information, 
and have done much good in the mother land. It is gratifying to find that this 
department of practical work is being developed also in other parts of the British 
Empire. We have received a useful report on insect and fungus pests from the 
Department of Agriculture at Brisbane, Australia, prepared b}^ Mr. Henry Tryon, 
of the Queensland museum, and several numbers of Indian Museum Notes, pub- 
lished at Calcutta by the Government of India Revenue and Agricultural Depart- 
ment. These " Notes " are edited by Mr. E. G. Cotes, and contain a large number 
of most interesting and valuable papers, both scientific and practical, illustrated 
with excellent engravings. 

Before leaving this subject, I must not omit to mention the publication last 
autumn of a bulletin on the " Mediterranean Flour-Moth " (Fphestia Kuhniella, 
Zeller), prepared by Dr. Bryce, of Toronto, and issued by the Agricultural Depart- 
ment of Ontario. It is an excellent pamphlet and contains just what one wants 
to know about this new pest. The mischief referred to seems to have been 
stamped out, at least I have not heard of any further cases of attack in this 
province, and we may be quite certain that after the experience of last year, our 
millers will keep a sharp look out for the pest, and deal with it promptly should 
it show itself again. 



11 



I feel now that I have trespassed quite long enough upon your patience, 
-and must bring my remarks to a close. The prospects of our Society are bright 
and cheering ; we may well congratulate ourselves upon what has been accom- 
plished in the past, and look forward with pleasant anticipations to the future. 
Let each member work honestly and faithfully in his own special department, 
and let us all unite in upholding the interests of the Society, and doing all that 
we can to increase its usefulness, maintain its reputation and ensure its success. 



After a cordial vote of thanks to the President for his interesting address 
had been duly moved and seconded, Mr. Fletcher was called upon to give an 
account of the meeting at Indianapolis of the Entomological Club of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, to which he had been 
sent as delegate by the Society, and from attending which he had just returned. 
Mr. Fletcher stated that it had been an exceptionally good meeting, attended by 
a larger number than usual of eminent entomologists and botanists, and that its 
discussions were remarkably interesting and useful. The full account of its 
proceedings will be found in a subsequent part of this report. 

The Rev. T. W. Fyles read a scholarly paper, entitled, " A Day in the 
Woods," which was highly appreciated by the audience. 

The reports of the Council, the Montreal Branch, and the delegate to the 
Boyal Society were read by the President. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Council of the Entomological Society of Ontario beg to present the 
following report of their proceedings during the past year : — 

The Society, they are happy to say, continues to prosper and maintain its 
usefulness. The membership is satisfactory and increased interest is being takea 
in its work. 

The twentieth annual report on Economic and General Entomology was 
sent to the Minister of Agriculture in December last, and was printed and distri- 
buted in the following May. As it has been for some time in the hands of the 
members of the Society, it is unnecessary to refer particularly to it. It consisted 
of 104 pages, with 50 wood cuts in illustration, and was quite up to the average 
in the papers which it contained. 

The Canadian Entomologist has been regularly issued at the beginning of each 
month, and is now approaching the completion of its 22nd volume. It continues 
to receive valuable contributions from all the leading entomologists in North 
America, as well as from some in Europe, and is regarded by scientists as a 
highly important magazine in the department which it occupies. The editor has 
found it necessary on two occasions recently to enlarge the number of pages 
from 20 to 24 in May and 28 in August, owing to the pressure upon his space. 

After the disastrous fire at the University of Toronto in February last, the 
Council decided to present to the library a complete set of the Canadian Ento- 
mologist and the annual reports. 

^ Several valuable additions have been made to the library of the Society 
during the past year, among which may be mentioned Mr. S. H. Scudder's " But- 



12 



terflies of the New England States and Canada," which is now completed and bound,, 
and the Rev. Dr. McCook's " Spiders and their Spinning-work," two volumes of 
which have thus far been issued. 

In April last a meeting of the Society was held in London, with the presi- 
dent in the chair, at which plans were discussed for the formation of sections of 
the Society in other departments of natural science. The memorandum agreed 
upon at the time is herewith submitted for approval and ratification. 

In consequence of the removal of Mr. E. Baynes Reed from London to 
British Columbia, to take charge of the Dominion Meteorological Station at 
Victoria, it will be necessary to make some new arrangements for the care of the 
library and collections, and the performance of the official work of the Society. 
The Council will submit a scheme for the appointment of a permanent officer in 
the person of Mr. J. Alston Moffat, of Hamilton, which they trust will be found 
to work satisfactorily, and to increase the usefulness and prosperity of the 
Society. 

The Council desire to place on record their feeling of deep regret at the 
removal of Mr. Reed from this Province and the loss which the Society thereby 
sustains. Mr. Reed is one of the original members of the Society, and for more 
than a quarter of a century has been one of the most active and zealous of its^ 
officials, filling at different times the positions of vice-president, secretary-trea- 
surer, librarian, curator and auditor. To him it is especially due that the library 
has grown to its present dimensions and value, and that so much progress has 
been made by the Society in many directions. The Council beg to thank Mr. 
Reed for his services in the past, and wish him all possible success and prosperity 
in his new and important sphere of labour. 

During the month of May last arrangements were entered into for the 
purchase of the large collections in Coleoptera and other orders of insects made 
by Mr. Johnson Pettit, of Grimsby. The packing and transportation were super- 
intended by Mr. Moffat, and the collections are now safely deposited in the rooms 
of the Society. 

In accordance with our long-established custom, a member of the Councils 
Mr. Fletcher, has attended, as representative of the Society, the meeting of the 
Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,, 
which has just been held at Indianapolis, Ind. Mr. Fletcher will submit a report 
of its proceedings. 

The report of Mr. Lyman, the delegate to the Royal Society of Canada, and 
the report of the Montreal Branch, are presented herewith. The accounts of the 
secretary-treasurer have been duly audited, and will be laid before the Society. 

Tenders for printing the Canadian Enlomologist have been procured from 
several printing offices in London and Toronto, and are now laid before the 
Society for consideration. 

Respectfully submitted pn behalf of the Council. 



CHARLES J. S. BETHUNE, 

President 



13 



KEPOKT FROM THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO TO 
THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

BY H. H. LYMAN, DELEGATE. 

As delegate from the Entomological Society of Ontario, it is again for the 
third time my duty to submit a short report of the work and progress of the 
Society during the past year, and I have much pleasure in saying that the Society 
continues to prosper and to maintain its high position among the scientific 
institutions of the Dominion and the continent. 

The monthly magazine of the Society, the Canadian Entomologist, has been 
regularly and promptly issued during the past year and fully maintains its well 
known high character. The volume for 1889, which was the twenty-first volume, 
contained the usual 2:tO pages of reading matter, and had also one plate. The 
contributors numbered thirty-four and the articles were quite up to the usual 
standard of interest. One new genus, thirteen new species and seven new varie- 
ties of various orders were described in the volume,' which also contained the 
complete life-histories of four species and partial ones of eight others. A series 
of papers on popular and economic entomology were also published during the 
year. 

The annual report of the Society for 1889 to the Minister of Agriculture for 
Ontario has been published and contains many interesting papers of much 
importance to agriculturists, besides the usual report of the annual meeting 
and of the finances of the Society. 

The annual meeting of the Society was held in Toronto on September 3rd, 
during the meeting in that city of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, which afforded our members the pleasure of meeting some of the 
distinguished entomologists of the neig'hbouring republic whose presence also 
added much interest to the meeting of our Society. 

Our members also enjoyed the pleasure of attending the meetings of the 
Entomological Club of the American Association, presided over by our then 
President, Mr. Fletcher. 

During the progress of these meetings it was resolved to form an " Associa- 
tion of Official Economic Entomologists " for the United States and Canada, 
which was accordingly organized and officers duly elected. 

This movement is likely to have a very beneficial effect in securing greater 
co-operation among entomologists in official positions, and the annual meetings 
with the interchange of members' views cannot fail to be productive of much 
good. The library of our Society is in excellent order and was reported at the 
annual meeting as containing 1,052 volumes. 

On account of certain provisions of " The Agriculture and Arts Act " of 
Ontario, recently passed, it was found necessary to make certain changes in the 
council of the Society, as the Act provides that all societies which receive aid 
from the Ontario Government must be governed by a board of directors who 
are residents of the agricultural divisions which they represent, the Entomolo- 
gical Society being permitted to group the thirteen agricultural divisions into 
five with one director for each. This Act will of course prevent any member of 
the Society residing out of Ontario holding any of the more important positions 
in the gift of the Society. 



14 



The following oflBcers for the ensuing year were duly elected : 

President— Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M. A., D.C.L., Port Hope. 

Vice-President — E. Baynes Reed, London. 

Secretary-Treasurer — W. E. Saunders, London. ^ 

Librarian — E. Baynes Reed, London. 

Curator — Rowland Hill, London. 

Directors, Division 1 — W. H. Harrington, Ottawa. 

2— J. D. Evans, Sudbury. 

" 3 — Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 

" 4 — J. Alston Moflat, Hamilton. 

" 5 — J. M. Denton, London. 

Editor of the Canadian Entomologist — Rev. Dr. Bethune, Port Hope. 
Editing Committee — James Fletcher, Ottawa ; J. M. Denton, London ; 

Rev. T. W. Fyles, South Quebec ; Dr. Brodie, Toronto. 
Delegate to the Royal Society of Canada — H. H. Lyman, Montreal. 
Auditors — J. M. Denton and E. B. Reed, London. 

Early last month our Society, on the suggestion of the President, resolved to 
extend its field of operations by permitting the formation of sections for the 
study of other branches of Natural History, and sections have already been 
formed in Botany, Ornithology, Geology, and Microscopy, and joint field meetings 
of all the sections will be held regularly during the summer. This movement 
will, it is anticipated, strengthen the Society by bringing in many additional 
members. It is also hoped that arrangements may be effected to keep the rooms 
of the Society open daily. 

The Montreal Branch, of which I have the honour to be President, continues 
I am happy to say in a prosperous condition. A number of new members have 
joined during the past year, and the monthly meetings have been regularly held 
and have been usually well attended. 

Mr. Scudder's magnificent work on the Butterflies of New England, to 
which reference was made last year, was completed last October, and its issue 
marks an epoch in the history of North American Entomology. 

The placing by Parliament during the past session, of books which have 
been published for twenty or more years upon the free list, is a measure of great 
importance to entomologists, as it removes a very burdensome tax upon men 
whose studies are seldom remunerative in a pecuniary sense, and will tend to 
encourage the bringing into the country of many valuable works upon this science 
which would not otherwise have been done. 



REPORT OF THE MONTREAL BRANCH. 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the Montreal Branch was held at the 
residence of Mr. Lyman on May 23rd, 1890, at 8 o'clock, p.m. 

The following report of the Council was then submitted by the President : 

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MONTREAL BRANCH OF THE ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

The Council in presenting their report for the year 1889-90,, can state with pleasure that the past year 
has been one of progress for the Branch, no less than six new members having been elected during the 
year. 

The names of those added to our roll are Messrs. Chas. Jackson, P. M. Dawson, E. F. Baynes, 
Alfred (rriffin, G. M. Edwards, and W. C. Adams ; but of these Mr. Dawson has recently left Montreal- 
to pursue his studies elsewhere. 



15 



During the year ten meetings have heen held, one of which, viz. : that in June, held at the residenco 
of Mr. Trenholme, in Cote St. Antoine, was primarily devoted to collecting nocturnal lepidoptera. 
The following papers were read during the year : — 

1. The North American Callimorphas ; A Reply to Critics. H. H. Lyman. 

2. Some Insects injurious to the Oak ; F. B. Caulfield. 

3. Notes on the Lepidoptera of Little Metis, P. Que. A. F. Winn. 
3. A Trip to Mount Mansfield. H. H. Lyman. 

5. Note on the Occurrence of Erebia Discoidalis at Sudbury, Ont. H. H. Lyman. 

6. Notes on some species of Coccinellidae found at Montreal. F. B. Caulfield. 

7. Entomology of Pittsfield, Mass. P. M. Dawson. 

8. Note on the occurrence of Lepisesia fiavofasciata at Ormstown, P. Que. H. H. Lyman. 

9. Various notes on Coleoptera. J. F. Hansen. 

Comparatively little field work was done during the collecting season of 1889, owing to the unusual 
scarcity of insects of those orders studied by the members, and though the prospects for this season are 
not as yet very encouraging, we may hope that more will be done, especially with the increased member- 
ship of the Branch ; and it must also be remembered that even in an unfavourable season good work may 
be done in discovering the preparatory stages and foodplants of insects where these are unknown, or only 
partially known, as was the case last season in regard to Grapta J. album, which was bred by two of our 
members. 

Submitted on behalf of the Council. 

(Signed) H. H. LYMAN, President 

The Secretary-Treasurer then subraitted the financial statement, shewing a 
balance on hand of $8.77. 

The reports having been adopted, the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : — President, H. H. Lyman ; Vice-President, F, B. Caulfield ; 
Secretary-Treasurer, A. F. Winn ; Council, E. C. Trenholme and J. F. Hansen. 

The President then read an interesting paper, " Notes on Argynnis freya 
A. Chariclea, and H. Montinus," dealing with the differences between these 
species and illustrating them by specimens. 

(Signed) E. C. TRENHOLME, 

Sec-Treasurer . 



ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THE TREASURER. 
Receipts, 1889-90. 

Membership fees $229 53 

Sale? of Entomologist 110 89 

" pins, cork, etc 144 54 

Advertisements 13 1 

Government grant < 1,000 00 

Interest 10 08 

BaLince from last year 121 73 

SI, 629 96 

Expenditure, 1889-90. 

Printing *^31 75 

Report and meeting expenses lo4 15 

Library ^7 26 

Purchase of collections, etc 318 52 

Expense account (postage, stationery, etc) 91 6d 

Rent 80 00 

Insurance ^ 

Grants to Editor, Secretary and Librarian 200 00 

Cork, pins, etc - 107 69 

Balance 

$1,629 96 

\ 



16 



The President read the memorandum which was drawn up in April last 
regarding the formation of sections of the Society in various departments of natural 
science, and after giving an account of the enthusiasm with which the project was 
taken up by the naturalists in London, he congratulated the members an the 
success of the movement and hoped that it would long continue. 

A paper by Mr. Frederick Clarkson, of New York, entitled " Observations 
from the top of a White Mountain coach," concluded the formal part of the 
meeting, and was listened to with much interest. At the requ3st of those 
present, Dr. Bethune gave an entertaining account of the admirable work of Miss 
Eleanor A. Ormerod, the foremost economic entomologist of Great Britain, 
including pleasant reminiscences of his personal acquaintance with her. 

The meeting then proceeded to discuss the locality and arrangements for an 
outing the next day, and decided upon visiting the banks of the River Thames a 
few miles below the city, where there is an excellent collecting ground. 

Mr. Dearness, Mr. W. E. Saunders and Dr. Woolverton were next called 
upon to give a report of the procedings in the botanical, ornithological and 
geological sections respectively; their remarks were highly interesting and 
encouraging, and proved that the new departure made by the Society is an 
excellent one and must greatly redound to its success and prosperity. 

After some congratulatory remarks by the President upon the admirable 
showing of the Society for the past year, the meeting adjourned. 



A DAY IN THE WOODS. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

A day in the woods ! What delightful reminiscences do the words awaken 
— recollections of bird-nesting and nutting expeditions, and of 

" The days when we went gipsy inp: a long time ago," 

To the busy man, who loves business for itself, a day of relaxation can 
hardly be unwelcome ; but to the man who leads a busy life, not from choice, 
but from stress of circumstances and for whom the wilderness and the solitary- 
place have especial charms, how delightful is it to escape from his accustomed 
haunts, and " far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife," to look into the fair 
face of Nature, and to listen with loving reverence whilst she tells of many 
thinsfs. 

It was with something akin to the feelings of such a man that on the 6 th 
day of August last, I proposed to the young people at my house that we should 
have a day in the woods. The proposition was joyfully welcomed, a party was 
soon made up, the horse was harnessed, lunch baskets were packed, tin-pails for 
berrying were stowed away and forthwith we started. We drove along the cliff 
road to St. David's and then took a by-road leading to St. Henri's. Soon we came 
to a region of sand. Wherever the turf was cut by the wagon- wheels sand 
appeared. With change of soil, a change of flora and fauna may be expected. 
The first thing that took my attention was the multitude of tiger beetles fre- 
quentino" this green lane. A sandy tract in which ant-hills are numerous is the 
f avorite°hunting ground of the cicindelidse, and in such a tract the mining opera- 
tions of their larvse may be easily carried on. Amongst the beetles that I 
noticed on this occasion, was the blue-black cicindela with the yellow clypeus 



17 



(G. longilabris Say), the rich rosy-purple (G. purpurea, 01iv.),(Fig. 6), and the deep 
bronzed-green (C. limbalis Kl.). My efforts to capture some of 
these aroused the curiosity of some habitants who were working 
in an adjacent field. At first they looked with the utmost astonish- 
ment at my proceedings, and shook their heads at one another as 
much as to say, He is very far gone; but soon a light seemed to dawn 
in upon them and there was a general clearing up, they came, in fact, to 
the conclusion that I and my party were bound on a fishing excursion 
to the Falls of the Etchemin, and that I was prudently laying in a 
supply of grasshoppers for bait And shortly afterwards, when I 
Fig. 6. bad occassion to speak to them, I received respectful greeting and 
attention as one who knew luhat he was about. Resuming our 
journey we came to a region of second growth balsams, broken in upon by poorly 
cultivated fields in which blue-berry bushes abounded, and by tracts of green vel- 
vety moss dotted over with young pines. As we entered this region the passage of 
our vehicle disturbed a butterfly. " There goes Neonympha canthus," I said, but 
in a moment the thoughts of the incongruities of time and place for this induced 
me to leave my wagofi and go in search of the insect, and soon I had the 
great delight of securing for the first time, a living specimen of Debis Portlandia. 
Gosse took this species many years ago at Compton, P. Que., and D'Urban in 
Argenteuil county, on the River Rouge. It has since been taken by Mr. Caulfield 
and Mr. Winn on Mount Royal, and by Mr. Fletcher in the neighbourhood of 
Ottawa. The insect is, however, rare in the Province of Quebec. In the course 
of a few hours I took two others specimens, dilapidated females. I found that 
the ovary of one of these had been quite emptied, from the other I obtained by 
pressure five pearly- white eggs, large for the size of the insect. 

1 did not find D. Portlandia difficult to catch. It has the habit of flitting 
for a few rods, and then settling on the trunk of a tree a yard or two from the 
ground, trusting it would seem for security to the similarity of its colours to 
those of the lichens that cling about the balsam stems. 

In the glades and open fields Argynnis Aphrodite and Argynnis Atlantis 
were everywhere abundant, the latter being readily distinguished by their dusky 
beauty from their brighter companions. Whilst I was watching these active 
fritillaries, a butterfly of a diflerent form came into the field. It proved to be 
Grapta gracilis. It was the only one of its kind that I could discover. Another 
good butterfly that I took on this occasion was Thecla Titus. This insect appears 
to he very widely distributed in Quebec Province. I have found it on Mount 
Royal, at Oka on the Ottawa, in the Eastern Townships and at Quebec, but 
solitary, or in pairs only. 

Amongst the moths that showed themselves on this occcasion, I noticed 
two very perfect specimens of that showy insect Arctia Saundersii,(Fig. 7), also the 
beautiful Plusias, Simplex and Precationis. On the trunks of the trees 
Pretophora truncata was to be seen, and, 
of course, that ubiquitous insect Drasteria 
erecthea (Cram.) was constantly rising from 
the grass at my approach. The hour for 
luucheon having arrived, and my boy hav- 
ing kindled a fire and made the tea, the 
fruit gatherers were summoned and soon 
appeared laden with their spoils, raspber- 
ries, blueberries and the fruit of Amelanchier 
Canadensis (Torr. and Gr.), called by the Fig. 7. 

French-Canadians poires. We sat down under a spreading beech, and amidst such 

2 (EN.) 





18 



a beating of drums as the Queen of England holding high festival in Windsor 
Castle never heard, for it seemed as if from every tree Cicada canicularis was 
sounding its note. The tattoo of this insect increases in intensity for a while 
and then breaks off with a few disjointed beats. Now and then a sudden whir-r-r 
would be heard and the dark body of the bug would be seen shooting like a 
bolt to fresh vantage ground, the transparent wings of the insect being invisible 
against the blue sky. 

After luncheon the most interesting discovery that I made was that of a 
species of Gelechia inhabiting galls on the white aster (Diplopappus umhellatus 
Torrey and Gray). The galls were found well up the stems of the plant, from a 
foot to two feet above the ground, and were smooth and onion-shaped. The 
largest specimens were five-eighths of an inch across. On opening the galls I 
found in several a brown chrysalis resting upon a web stretched across the 
interior. At the bottom was some decomposed matter, and near the top a neat 
round hole bitten through to the outer skin of the gall. In others of the galls T 
found a number of white shining grubs, blunt at one end and tapering at the 
other. Their length was about one line. I counted ten of these in one gall, 
and they were evidently consuming the remains of their host. In some instauces 
the grubs had spun up into light drab cocoons. 

In a few days I obtained from the galls four moths and two ichneumon flies. 
The latter were black with orange legs. The following is the description of the 
moths : 

Length of body four lines, expanse of wings eight to nine lines. 

Head white, eyes black, labial palpi recurved — first joint large and white, 
lower half of second joint white, upper brown with a white tip, antennae filiform, 
jight brown ringed with black. 

Thorax reddish chocolate in colour : fore-wings rich chocolate red with a 
white divided fascia near the hind margin, under side grey ; hind- wings pale 
silvery grey ; fringes grey with a faint brownish gloss. 

Abdomen golden yellow on the upper side of the three first segments, the 
rest light brown. 

These moths differ considerably from those figured and described by Mr. 
Kellicott in Vol. X. Gan. Ent, p. 201, and from those described by Mr. Kiley in 
the First Missouri Report, p. 172. I would suggest for them the name of 
Gelechia galloediplopappi. 

The life of the Gelechia in its early stages is an interesting and sugges- 
tive one. The creature lives and toils in the narrow area of its prison-house, 
knowing nothing of the higher life and the glorious field for which it is des- 
tined, yet impelled by its instincts to make preparations for the change. 
Dire foes it has ; and can it be that some violationof instinct, some erratic course on 
the part of the larva lavs it open to the assaults of these ? We know not, but 
possessed by these, it fails to attain to that nobler state of existence — which 
things are an allegory, suggestive to us of joys for which we yearn and evils 
which we fear. 

Here as elsewhere this season I could not but notice the abundance of hairy 
caterpillars, Arctians of various kinds. A large proportion of these caterpillars 
^had been overtaken with a strange disease — a sort of mange — and many had 
already succumbed to it. The warts upon the caterpillars had dried up, the 
bristles had blanched and loosened, the intestines had disappeared, and the outer 
frame of the insect had become spongy, the annules parted at a touch. The 
unfortunate insects were the prey of a fungus which has been identified by Dr. i 



19 



Thaxter as Entomophthora grylli var aulica (Fres.) 1 am inclined to believe- 
that the intense heat following upon the long spell of wet weather that 
we had in early summer induced the disease. Such an epidemic amongst 
caterpillars I have not witnessed since the time — some years ago — that the larvae 
of Pieris rapce were swept away by thousands. . 

Everywhere upon the choke-cherry bushes were to be found colonies of the 
little yellow, black-headed larvae of the Tortrix {Caccecia cerasivorana, Fitch). 
They bind the terminal leaves of the shoots together with a dense web, and carry 
on their operations under its shelter. 

Of the Coleoptera but few specimens presented themselves. I took several of 
Coccinella novem-notata (Hb.), (Fig. 8) and one handsome Leptura, dusky yellow 
with a distinct black cross on the elytra. This Mr. Mofiatt -has 
identified for me as L. subhamata (E-and). The order of insects that 
WHS most numerously represented on this occasion was the Hymenop- 
tera. Among the species I noticed were Bomhus fervidus, (Cress), 
Bonihus ternarius, (Say), Bomhus consimilis, (Cress), Anthophora 
homhoides, (Kirby), Andrena nivalis, (Smith), Vespa media, (Oliv.), 
Odynerus capra, (Sauss.), Ewmenes fraterna, (Say), Crahro singularis, (Pack^ 
Redychrum violacewm, (Lepelle), Ichneumon grandis, (Brulle), /. lastus, 
(BruUe), and the males of Uroceros cyaneits, (Fab.) 

By this time the sun was getting low in the sky, and the voices of my 
young friends were, I fancied, a little less jubilant than they had been earlier in 
the day, and feeling the wisdom of not driving pleasure into satiety, I gave the 
word for the return. Besides my captures, we took back'with us a large pailful of 
raspberries, another of blueberries and a smaller one of poires. All of which were 
afterwards preserved. So we hope that in the dark days of winter we shall be 
reminded, frequently and pleasantly, of our day in the woods. 



OBSERVATIONS FROM THE BOX OF A WHITE MOUNTAIN COACH. 

BY FREDERICK CLARKSON, NEW YORK. 

On a journey through the White Mountains of New Hampshire, en route to 
Bar Harbor, Me., the past summer, I observed the following Lepidoptera : At 
Franconia Notch, altitude 2,014 feet, P. Turnus was abundant, constantly fly- 
ing along the drive and in the woods bordering the road. At the Flume, altitude 
4,500 feet, by wet places on the road as many as fifty were found congregated 
apparently enjoying the moisture. At greater elevations Turnus was rarely seen 
and above the timber line I failed to discover 
any Lepidoptera. At the Crawford Notch, alti- 
tude 3,134 feet, and througrh the Glen, Turnus 
was ever in sight, its brilliant yellow wings 
contrasting beautifully with the luxuriant 
green of these primeval forests. In thick 
woody places, and where the sun shone 
through in patches, the coquettish L. arthe- 
mis frequently appeared, ever alighting with- 
in your reach and ever darting away again 
with hide and go seek playfulness. A. Aphro- 
dite with wings of "Silver bells and cockle shells" delighted the eye in its graceful 
flight along the road way between Jefferson and Fabyan, and C. philodice, 
(Fig. 9), rising with the dust at the horses' feet would encircle the coach, and 
then wander away to join its companions at the roadside brook. D. archippus,- 




FiG. 9. 



20 



(Fig. 10), the universal beauty, though not numerous in the White Mountains as 
searly as the 11th of August, was occasionally seen flitting from flcwer to flower 




Fig. 10. 



with all its well known elegance and dignity of motion. In a small cabinet at 
the Hotel Waumbek, at Jefferson, there is a single specimen of Chionobas 
semidea, (Say), captured on the summit of Mount Washington. This butterfly, 
says Scudder, feeds on sedges and lives upon the summit of Mount Washington; the 
genus containing several species, is, according to Packard, found on Alpine sum- 
mits, and in the Arctic regions and on subarctic mountains. It must be a hardy 
insect to withstand the. variable temperature of the mountain top. At the 
Summit House on Mt. Washington, the mercury on the 15th of July, at 5 a.m. 
stood at 47°, while a few days previous it was as low as 27°. At midday the power 
of the sun is felt, and the temperature is as high as that at a much lower altitude. 

The cabinet, already referred to, at the Hotel Waumbek, Jefl'erson, contains 
the following Lepidoptera, the greater part being captures made at Bethlehem, 
which is at an altitude of 1,450 feet : 



P. Turnus. 
D. Archippus. 
L. Misippus. 
A. Aphrodite. 
V. Antiopa. 
G. Interrogationis. 
C. Philodice. 
P. Cardui. 



S. Alope. 
P. Cecropia. 
T, Polyphemus. 
A. Luna. 
E. Grata. 
S. do. 

M. Quinque-maeulata. 
C. Piatrix. 



The Profile House, at Franconia Notch, has also a collection of Lepidoptera. 
The cabinet contains the following, all of which were captured in the vicinity of 
the hotel, altitude 1,054 feet : 



P. Turnus. 
V. Antiopa. 
P. Atalanta. 
D. Archippus. 
P. Cardui. 
L. Arthemis. 
A. Aphrodite. 
C. Philodice. 



P. Cecropia. 

A. Luna. 

S. Kalmiae. 

S. Drupiferarum. 

C. Ultronia. 

A. Nessus. 

A. Octomaculata. 



A stray setter followed our stage from Mount Washington to the Glen and 
suggested an Entomological joke which I subjoin, and with which I close this record. 

What is the name of your dog ? 
Well, I C9.ll him Entomology. 
Rather a queer name for a dog, isn't it ? 
No, I think it singularly appropriate. 

Why, Entomology is a science, and means a discourse on insects, in short, it is wholly and altogether 
a subject of insects. 

That's just the reason why I call my dog Entomology, for he is wholly and altogether a subject of 
insects. 



21 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY IN APRIL. 

A meeting of the London members of the Entomological Society of Ontario 
was held in the rooms, Victoria Hall, London, on Friday evening, April 11th, 
1890 : the president. Rev. C. J. S. Bethune in the chair. The following resolutions 
were adopted • 

That with a view of increasing the usefulness of the Society and furthering 
the study of Natural History and the kindred sciences it is desirable to follow 
the method of the Canadian Institute and the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and permit sections to be formed for the various branches 
of Botany, Ornithology and Oology, Microscopy, Geology, and such others as may 
from time to time appear to be desirable. The basis proposed is as follows : 

1. All members of the sections shall be members of the Entomological Society and be governed by its 
rules and regulations and entitled to all its privileges. 

2. Any five members may, with the permission of the Council, form themselves into a Section devoted 
to some special branch, and organize the same, appoint ofiicers and make rules for the meetings, etc.,' the 
same not being contrary to the rules of the Society. 

3. One-half of the annual fee of each member of a section shall be refunded by the Entomological 
Society to the Treasurer of that section for the use and benefit of the section. 

4. All members of the Society shall be free to attend any meeting of a section and take part in its 
discussions, but only those shall be entitled to vote who shall have signed the roll of that particular section. 

5. A member may elect to be member of one or more sections, but the one-half of the fees returned 
by the Society can only be paid to one section. 

That it is desirable in the interests of the Society that some one should be 
found who would keep the rooms open daily and be in charge thereof. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



ORGANIZATION OF SECTIONS. 
The following report is taken from the London Free Press, of May 5th, 1890 • 

A most enthusiastic meeting of Naturalists was held in the rooms of the Entomological Society on 
Saturday evening, for the purpose of organizing sections of the Society for the purpose of active work in the 
kindred branches of natural history. Section.-: were formed in Botany, Ornithology, Geology and Microscopy, 
with the following chairmen ^ro ^em :— Botatiy, John Dearness ; Ornithology, William Saunders ; Geology, 
Dr. Woolverton ; Microscopy, Prof. J. W. Bowman. Evenings were selected for organizing the sections 
and the meeting then adjourned. The Botanical section met at once and elected officers as follows : — 
chairman, John Dearness ; vice-chairman. Prof. J. H. Bowman; secretary. Dr. Susannah Carson. The 
following persons signified their intention of joining the section : — Dr. Jennie Carson, Mrs, W, E. Saunders, 
Miss Edith McMechan, Miss Fowler, Drs. Hodge and Woolverton, Messrs. E. B. Reed, A. McQueen, A. 
0. Jeflfery, S. H. Craig, Saunders, J. BalkwilJ, Kelley, A. Craig, R. Elliott and R. A. Gray. 

The next meeting will be held on Saturday evening, 10th inst., at 8 o'clock, in the Entomological 
rooms at which it is expected there will be a large attendance of ladies as well as gentlemen. Mr. Dearness 
will give suggestions as to collecting and preserving plants, wiwie the identification of plant* collected dur- 
ing the week will be an item of special interest. The Ornithological section meets to-night in the Entomo- 
logical rooms and a general invitation is extended to all interested in the study of Ornithology and Oology 
to attend so as to make the organization complete at once and ready for the seasoa's stiidy. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE A. A. A. S. 

The Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, assembled in the State House at Indianapolis, Ind., on Wednesday, 
August 20th, 1890, and began its regular sessions at 9 o'clock a.m., the President, 
Prof. A. J. Cook, Agricultural College, Mich., in the chair. 

There were present during the meetings : W. B, Alwood, Blacksburgh, Va ; 
Geo. F. Atkinson, Columbia, S. C; W. S. Blachley ; P. Carter ; Prof. E. W. Clay- 
pole, and K. B. Claypole, Akron, Ohio ; F. S. Earle, Ocean Springs, Michigan; 
S. G. Evans, Evansville, Ind.: James Fletcher, Ottawa, Ont.; H. Garman, Lexington, 
Ky.; Mrs. 0. Hanney ; C. W. Hargitt, Oxford, Ohio ; Thos. Hunt ; John Marten, 



22 



Albion, 111.; Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt and Miss Augusta Murtfeldt, St. Louis, Mo.; 
W. W. Norman ; Prof. Herbert Osborn and L. H. Pammel, Ames, Iowa; R. S. F. 
Perry ; C. Robertson, Carlingville, Ind.; Prof. J. W. Spencer, Athens, Ga.; James 
Troop and Prof. F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind.; Dr. Clarence M. Weed, Columbus, 
Ohio, and others. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

The President, Prof. A. J. Cook, delivered the following address on teaching 
entomology : 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Entomological Club. — I congratulate you 
that another year has passed, and our number has not been broken in upon by 
death. While our ranks have been much enlarged, no one has been called to that 
undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveller returns. I also congratu- 
late you upon the great increment in our force of working entomologists. I think 
I may say, with no fear of contradiction, that no year in the history of America 
has been so remarkable in this respect as has the last. This is a cause for special 
felicitation, not only to entomologists, but to all our people. Ours is a tremendous 
country — by ours I include, of course, our Canadian brothers, for we, as scientists, 
know no line of separation — and to spy out the entire land needs an army of 
workers or observers, all trained to keen sight and ready apprehension. But 
more than this the magnitude of our country is fully equalled by the magnitude of 
the insect hosts, and to know all of these, with their full life history, res:][uires an 
incalculable amount of closest research. But our business economy demands this 
for all our species : for so wonderful is the balance of nature, so close the relations 
of all species of life, that really we may hardly divide insects into those important 
and those unimportant in our agricultural economy. All are important ; and so 
from an economic, no less than a scientific standpoint, it is desirable that all such 
research be widely encouraged, and it is a most hopeful omen — the rapid increase 
of earnest and trained workers. I shall not in this address occupy time by giving 
the peculiarities of the season in respect to insects, nor yet call attention to inte- 
resting discoveries, like the importation of the Vedalia cardinalis, All these 
will be brought out in papers and discussions. I must, however, refer to the new 
association for the advancement of economic entomology, which was organized at 
Toronto a year ago, and which held its first meeting at Washington last Novem- 
ber. This meeting, under the Presidency of Dr. Riley, was a valuable one ; and 
that society promises much for the science of entomology, as well as for its 
economic development. It is also a matter of much interest that a new paper — 
Insect News is started at that great centre of entomology — Philadelphia — which 
will also do much every way for our science. This, with the very excellent 
periodical Insect Life, published by the Entomological Division of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, can but give new impetus to entomological research. In 
addition to these, we have an addition to Prof. Comstock's admirable work, which 
when completed will form a most valuable adjunct in the development of ento- 
mology. If we may judge from what we already have, this will be invaluable in 
every entomological laboratory. When the Society of Economic Entomologists 
was organized a year ago it was remarked by one of our first entomologists that 
that move sounded the death-knell of this Club. I then remarked that such 
ought not to be the case. That Society is to be composed oply of those interested 
in economic entomology, and of course will only put emphasis in the direction of 
the practical aspects of the science ; this more or less of entomologists in a wider 
^sense, and so will include those interested in practical entomology and also in 



2^ 



the science without relation to utility. The Club then may well continue. I 
believe it will live and thrive, and will be most helpful to entomologists and to 
our science. While the other Association will discuss economic questions, this 
Club will place no limit on either its discussions or its membership, only so far as 
entomology shall be its aim and [)urpose. No one doubts but that he who has a 
thorough training in the science of entomology will be far better prepared for 
practical work, and so there can be only the most cordial relations between the 
Association of Economic Entomologists and this Club. Indeed, many of our 
most active entomologists will be members of both. I have already stated the 
truism that only can he do the best practical work in entomology who is 
thoroughly well grounded in the general science of entomology. As we now have 
a, great call for entomologists in our experimental stations, agricultural colleges, 
a-nd as State entomologists, not to speak of the fact that every farmer and frait- 
grower would be more successful if he were well-informed in this science, it goes 
-without saying, that there ought to be in training men for just such work. It 
seems to me that it needs no argument to show that our agricultural colleges are 
just the places where this training should be given. They were founded to teach 
those subjects which would be most serviceable on the farm. Entomology is one 
of the chief of these. Thus it follows that every student of agriculture should 
have a tho-^ough course in this science, with the practical aspect of the subject 
kept in the foreground. In thus presenting this science to large classes — I have 
from thirty to forty each year who study this subject in the course — the 
teacher will find some in each class who are specially fitted to succeed. They 
enjoy the study and work most earnestly just for the love of the pursuit. They 
liave quick observation, and are very accurate and honest in all their work. It 
needs no prophet to bespeak success in this field for such students. Our agricul- 
tural colleges are just the places to discover the men who have great possibilities 
in this direction ; just the places to give the training that shall best fit men to do 
the most valuable work. It will be my purpose in the remainder of this address 
to describe the equipment for such work, and to explain the method which I 
believe will give the best results. Of first importance is a good library ; this 
should contain all the standard works, periodicals and monographs, so that stu- 
dents who may decide to study any insect or genus, may find what has been 
written on the subject. Of course this cannot be had at once, but it is so essen- 
tial that no etfort should be spared to build up a complete entomological library 
at the earliest possible moment. Irue the scientist should study things, not 
books, but he will find a wide use of books most helpful in his study. Next to 
a library, such colleges should have good collections, which are often of more 
value than the library. A small show collection, illustrating the families and 
orders, and the several stages of the most injurious species of the place as well 
as the groups of beneficial ones should be open to the public. This will be studied 
and appreciated by the practical farmer, who, as he visits the college, will find it 
helpful, and will also interest and stimulate the under-class men, who will thus 
have their attention called towards insects before they commence the regular 
•study, which will not occur till they are well along in the course. Drawing, 
botany, microscopy, and French and German, if thoroughly understood, will be 
great aids to the student who commences the study of entomology. Thus this 
study will come late in the course and the show collection will be whetting the 
appetite of the under-class men from the time they enter college until they com- 
mence the study. I would also have what I call a student collection — this is a 
pretty full collection from the locality of the college. This I would hang upon 
the wall of the lecture room, which I would have dark, except when in use, so as 
to preserve the colour of the specimens. I would have this in rather small cases, 



24 



with glass in front and also back where it is desirable, as in case of Diurnals, to- 
study both under and upper sides of the wings. This collection should show at 
least types of each group in all stages, from egg to imago, as well as nests, co- 
coons, etc. This is an object lesson ever before the student, is ever ready for use 
by the teacher to illustrate his lecture, and is at the disposal of the students in 
naming their own collections or in closer study of any group. It seems to me 
such a collection should be in every college. Lastly, I would have a laboratory 
collection which should be a biological collection, and the fuller the better. This^ 
is in large, tight, glass-faced drawers. I use the Harvard case. This is for the 
use of teachers and post-graduates who desire to study further in the science. It 
is too valuable for general use by the student or to be kept to satisfy general 
curiosity. 

As I have before remarked, before the student commences the study of 
insects he should have had a good course in free-hand drawing, should have 
had instruction in the use of the microscope and in preparing microscopic speci- 
mens and slides, and if he has a ready use of German and French it will be very 
helpful to him in his study. It is also desirable that the student should have 
had a full course in botany. The students of our college have had three terms of 
botany, one devoted entirely to microscopic botany, before they begin the s-tudy 
of entomology. I consider this very valuable preparatory work. Entomology 
is very close precise work, and the laboratory work if carried on for a less space 
than three hours at a time is not satsfactor}^ But three hours of such close work 
is very wearying unless the student has had a fitting preparation. Thus I am 
pleased that our students have had vertebrate dissection with human and com- 
parative anatomy and phj^siology before they commence entomology. I know 
this seems the reverse of the natural method ; as nature proceeds from lower to 
higher ; vertebrate dissection is lighter and less trying to eye and brain than is 
the study of insect anatomy ; thus I am pleased to have Anatomy and Physiology 
of Vertebrates precede that of the Arthropoda in our course. In our college the 
student attends a course of sixty lectures on the anatomy and physiology of 
insects, systematic entomology and the economic bearing of the subject. These 
lectures, are illustrated by use of models, the student's collection of insects, already 
referred to, by microsocopic preparations, mostly prepared at the College, and 
elaborate charts and drawings also prepared specially for our use. In connection 
with this course there are 36 hours of laboratory. Each student works three 
hours one day each week for twelve weeks. In this time they are able to study 
the internal anatomy, and to examine carefully and accurately one insect of each 
order. In connection with this several insects are traced to the genus by such 
keys as Leconte 8.nd Horn, Cresson, Williston, etc. Besides the above, each stu- 
dent makes a collection of from ten to twenty-five insects of each order, all neatly 
put up with date and locality label ; each order by itself and all labelled as far as 
time will permit. Many students succeed in naming a large number of their 
specimens. Each student is also required to mount insects in all the approved 
ways. Small insects mounted on triangular pieces of cardboard or rectangles of 
cork with silver wires, while the larvae are put in bottles of alcohol with, rubber 
corks and also prepared by eviscerating and drying, while distended with air, in 
a heated oven. The students are also encouraged to prepare biological collections, 
in which they preserve the eggs, larvse after each moult, pupa, cocoon, imago of 
both sexes, and of various sizes and the several variations. Some of our most 
enthusiastic students work out several such life histories, describing not only the 
separate stages, but the several parasites that work to destroy the insects. I 
regard this work as very valuable. It is excellent discipline for the rnind and 
observation, gives accurate information of the most interesting kind, and arouses 



25 



enthusiasm for the study as nothing else can. It is such work as this that will 
tell for the future of entomological research, that will make entomologists, who 
will honour alike the fields of pure and applied entomology. But such study 
ought not and will not stop here. Post-graduates will avail themselves of the 
opportunities which such laboratories offer. Last winter during our long vaca- 
tion — ours is an agricultural college and our vacations must needs occur in winter, 
when farm operations are largely at a standstill — I had ten special students of 
entomology in my laboratory, one from South Dakota, one from Indiana, one 
from Ohio, one from Japan, one from Wisconsin, and the others from our own 
State. Nearly all were college graduates. Six special students, all graduates 
from colleges, have spent the year in my laboratory in special entomological 
study as post-graduate students. It seems to me that such are the young men 
who are going to develop the entomology of our country. They are the young 
men who can and will do grand work in our colleges and experimental stations. 
These young men each take up some special family or genus of insects, to which 
they give the major part of their time and study. They collect in all orders and 
give special attention to biological work, tracing the life histories of insects, 
identifying as far as possible the insects they capture and trying to become familiar 
with entomological literature, so far as they are able. The students are mutually 
helpful to each other. As the laboratory may be said to be a sort of perpetual 
Natural History, or more accurately Entomological Society, thus the students 
become familiar with the general laboratory work, in fact, they each become a 
factor in some degree in carrying the work forward. Here I will close by ex- 
plaining briefly the mode of our labaratory work, which difi^ers in some degree 
from the admirable plan which Prof. Forbes explained at the Washington meet- 
ing of Economic Entomologists last November. Our labels give in compact space 
locality, date, accession and species number. The accession number agrees with 
a number — serial number — in our accession catalogue for the special year. Thus, 
ac. 400 shows that the insect or insects bearing that label were the 400th col- 
lected during that season. The sp. number is given as the insect is determined, 
and is the number of the insect in the catalogue which we use. Thus, sp. 25 is 
" Cicindela purpurea," as the beetle is numbered 25 in Henshaw's catalogue of 
Coleoptera. In case the catalogue is not numbered, as is the case with Cresson's 
list of Hymenoptera, then we number it. We have a column in our accession 
catalogue for date, collector, person who named the specimen, and also for remarks. 

This last column is wide, and in it we can usually write all necessary informa- 
tion which we received in the collecting. If we are experimenting with or study- 
ing the insect, our notes are kept on cards. These are numbered to agree with 
accession catalogue, and are kept in serial order until we know the species when 
we add the species number as well. We now index the card and place it in its 
correct alphabetical position in our card collections. Thus we can very easily 
find our notes on any specimen, either by accession number or by the name of the 
species. This plan works well, and, it seems to me, is very economical in respect 
to time. Of course our students all see this sclieuie and become familiar with 
its workings. 



HESSIAN FLY, WHEAT-STEM MAGGOT AND OSCINIS. 

Mr. J. Fletcher presented some notes upon injuries caused by the Hessian 
Fly, the Wheat-stem Maggot and an undetermined species of Oscinis. He said 
that the note was presented with the object of eliciting further information upon 
a subject which had proved of great interest to him. During the past season he 
had endeavoured to determine the number of broods of the Hessian Fly for the 



26 



Ottawa district, and had found, first, that the Hessian Fly, the Wheat-stem Mag- 
got and Oscinis were all found at the same time and in the same plant, and 
further, that, speaking generally, they passed through their stages contempor- 
aneously. Of the three the last had proved much the most destructive. From 
root shoots of wheat sown on the 14th of April he had bred Hessian Fly and 
Oscinis at the end of June, and a month later Meromyza had appeared. He had 
also noticed in some fields at Ottawa that a large quantity of spring wheat was 
attacked by Hessian fly in the ground shoots or stools in the same manner as fall 
wheat is attacked in the autumn. It was frequently the case that on plants which 
had made from fifteen to twenty stools but one would be left, all the others having 
been destroyed by the insects. He had procured adult Hessian Flies at Ottawa dur- 
ing this season in the beginning of May, at the end of June, and in August, and they 
would probably appear again in September. He had not been able to find the 
Hessian Fly breeding in any of the grasses, and would like to know if others had 
done so. Meromyza and the Oscinis had been most troublesome pests in the ex- 
perimental grass patches at Ottawa, some grasses being almost exterminated by 
them. It was remarkable that the spring appearance of Meromyza had been so 
enormous as to have caused fear of a serious destruction of the wheat crop. As 
a matter of fact, however, there had been less injury, both to small grains and 
grasses, than for many years previously. This diminution he could only explain 
by the supposition that the eggs had been destroyed by some predaceous insect. 
The eggs must have been laid in large numbers, but there was very little evidence 
of the presence of the larvae, either in the standing wheat or barley, or in the 
root-shoots of barley. The Oscinis he had been unable to identify ; but, through 
the kindness of Mr. J ohn Marten, of Illinois, he had learnt of some work which 
had been done by Prof. Garman in Kentucky, upon what was probably the same 
species. This, Mr. Marten said, had been doubtfully identified by Dr. Williston 
as 0. variabilis. 

.W^- Prof. Garman stated that he had studied what appeared to be the same 
species, and had prepared an article for publication. He also gave some notes 
upon the life history and anatomy of the insect. 

Prof. Osborn had taken at Ames, Iowa, numerous specimens of Oscinis, one 
of which closely resembled that exhibited by Mr. Fletcher. 

Prof Alwood had studied in Ohio an Oscinis infesting oats, and had pub- 
lished his results in Bulletin 13, Division of Entomology. He had found the 
eggs, from two to eleven ia. number, were forced beneath the sheath of the leaf, 
and that just prior to pupation the larvae gnawed through the epidermis and the 
pupa protruded so as to admit of the easy escape of the adult. 

Mr. Fletcher, referring again to Meromyza, stated that in many instances he 
had found the eggs deposited in the field upon the upper surface of the leaf some 
distance from the stem, and asked if others had observed this to be the case else- 
where. 

Prof. Garman had found that the eggs were laid just above the sheath, or 
sometimes pushed beneath it. 

Prof. Webster stated that the eggs of the Hessian Fly, had, in the spring of 
the present year, throughout Southern and Central Indiana, been deposited near 
the roots, the " flax-seeds " being found in that portion of the plant ; while in the 
northern part of the State the case had evidently been difi'erent, as the " flax- 
seeds " were there almost invariably located about the second joint. 

The Secretary read a paper by Mr. Edward L. Graef, of New York, upon 
the American Silk Worm Moths or Spinners, in which a serious attack upon the 



27 



shade trees of New York by P. cecropia was recorded, and the suggestion made 
that this and other species might be turned to account, if any means could be 
devised for manufacturinof and utiJizinof their silk. As a stimulus to this indus- 
try, Mr. Graef generously offered a prize of fifty dollars for the best essay and 
model of apparatus for carrying this suggestion into effect. 



SECOND DAY'S SESSIONS. 

The Club met on Thursday at 8 a.m. Dr. C. M. Weed read an interesting 
paper upon the clover-stem borer, Languria mozardi. Fifteen species of plants 
were reported upon which the larva had been found feeding. This paper was 
discussed by Profs. Cook, Alwood, Osborn and others. 

Prof. Alwood spoke of tobacco insects, of which he was making a special 
study. He had observed a stem borer which was very injurious. 

Dr. Weed had learned of a tobacco root-louse in Southern Ohio. 

Prof. Garman spoke of the mouth parts of several species of some families 
of Thysanoptera, and stated that some recent studies had shown him that the 
figures published did not agree with his material. He then read the following 
paper, entitled " An Asymmetry of the Head and Mouth Parts of Thysanoptera." 

In a brief paper in the Bulletin of the Essex Institute I have recentty called 
attention to peculiarities in the structure of the head and mouth parts which set 
this group quite aparfc from other orders of Hexapoda. [This has no reference to 
affinities upon which, I believe, we are not prepared to pronounce until this and 
several other groups have been more completely studied.] In that paper it was 
claimed that the endocranium of the species examined was not symmetrical, being 
deficient on the right side ; that the labrum was one-sided ; that there was a 
developed mandible on the left side, with, at most, a rudiment on the right ; and 
that the mandibles of authors were probably lobes of the maxillae. 

At the time the paper was written I had not examined sufficient material to 
enable me to say whether the features pointed out were limited to certain species 
or were common to all members of the group. Since then many additional forms 
have been examined, all, however, belonging to the families Stenopteridse and 
Coleoptratidae, and in no case has there been found a departure in essentials from 
the structure of the head and mouth parts as they were described in the paper 
referred to. It is probably safe to assume, therefore, that the asymmetry noted 
is characteristic of these two families at least. 

Of the group Tubulifera no representatives have been studied, I shall not 
be surprised, since this is the lowest of the suborders, if examples of Phlaeothrips 
are found to be more nearly symmetrical. 

As an interesting fact, though in no way related to the main purpose of this 
communication, I may mention that the solitary mandible of Limothrips and 
Melanothrips is perforate, like the jaws of larval Chrysopa, of Dytiscidae, and of 
Myrmeleon. In specimens of Coleoptratidse examined, both labial and maxillary 
palpi are composed of three segments. 

I^ote. — Since my return to Lexington from the meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation I have secured a couple of very young Phlaeothrips. My examination of 
these is not completed, but I have succeeded in demonstrating the single jaw on 
the left side. The parts are greatly elongated, and remind one of the same 
organs in Hemiptera. The styliform parts are especially long, extending, when 



28 



retracted, into the cranial cavity towards the eye, thence bending posteriorly and 
extending along the posterior wall of the head to the mouth opening. Both 
mandible and styliform parts are perforate (or possibly grooved). 

Two unmistakable tarsal claws are present in this genus. From their 
relation of position to the pads the latter would seem to be modified pulvilli. 

Prof. Osborn was much pleased with what Prof. Garman had stated. He 
had also observed some of the points mentioned in a special study which he had 
made of these insects, and hoped Prof. Garman would publish his results as soon 
as possible. 

Dr. Weed presented a short paper on the oviposition of Listronotus lati- 
usculus. The eggs are laid in clusters of from five to ten upon the leaf stalks of 
Sagittaria variabUis, and are covered with small pieces of the epidermis which 
are nibbled off by the adult beetle. This was discussed by Messrs. Garman^ 
Fletcher and Webster. 

Mr. Charles Ptobertson, of Carlinville, 111., read a most interesting note upon 
the habits of the bee Emphor homhiliformis, which was originally described by 
Creason as a Melissodes, but Paton, in revising the genus, raised it to Emjphor. 
This bee, it was stated, confines itself almost exclusively to Hibiscus, chiefly 
H. lasiocarpus. The appearance and habits of the bee were described. It was 
stated that in collecting these bees it is important to catch those flying around 
the plant without alighting, as these were generally the males, whilst those visit- 
ing the flowers for honey and pollen were the females. On August 5th, when 
walking along a dam with water on one side, he had noticed a female standing 
upon the water ; she then flew to a bank, and he observed that she was carrying 
water to facilitate the excavation of hard ground, into which she was burrowing 
to build her nest. Sometimes one pellet of earth would be taken out after such 
an application of water, but at others three or even four. An interesting dis- 
cussion followed which was participated in by Messrs. Osborn, Cook, Weed^ 
Fletcher and others. 

Prof. Osborn read the following note " On a Peculiar Form of Coleopterous- 
larva " : Eleven years ago, while a student in college, I found a peculiar form of 
larva borino^ in the twig's of ash trees, and it was described at the time in the- 
students' journal at the college (The Aurora, May, 1879, page 5.) under the cap- 
tion " A Grub With Legs on its Back." The description is as follows : " The speci- 
men was found boring in the pith of a small twig on an ash tree near the road 
west of the college, apparently beginning at or near the tip of the twig and work- 
ing downward. Numerous twigs were found that had been inhabited in this- 
way, but only one specimen of the borer was found — this about a quarter of an 
inch long, quite slim, and nearly white. Its great peculiarity consists in the dis- 
position of its locomotive apparatus. The first three segments following the head 
are provided with the usual pair of legs, each in the normal position — that is, on 
the ventral surface. The following six segments are provided each with a pair 
of pro-legs, similar to those found on many caterpillars, but, strange to say, these 
are arranged upon the dorsal surface, exactly the opposite of the usual arrange- 
ment, while the number six is different from either the caterpillars, where there 
are four or five, or the saw-fl}^ larvm, which have eight. The remaining three 
segments have no propellers whatever. The beauty of this arrangement, for the 
conditions of the borer, can at once be seen, for it has as much foot-hold above as 
below. Placed upon a flat surface it could make no advancement, but wriggled 
awkwardly about, evidently seeking its double foot-hold. Placed between two 
thin plates of glass, it moved rapidly, using all its legs, and going with equal 



29 



facility backward or forward, either side up. If provided with some support at 
one side it was possible for it to travel by means of the legs on its dorsal surface 
alone." 

During the present season an example of a similar larva has come to my 
notice, specimens being first observed by Prof. L. H. Pammel, occurring in the 
stems of Helianthus. Their possessing similar locomotive organs upon the back 
called to mind the peculiar larvae noticed years ago. They differ, however, some- 
what in colour as well as in the plant on which they occur, and I find that they 
attacked voraciously dipterous larvae that were living in the same stems. 
Whether the}^ are normally carnivorous remains of course to be determined, but 
there can be no question of their attacks upon these larvae, and apparently with 
the intention of obtaining food from them. These specimens are of a light bluish 
colour, possessing pro-legs upon segments 4-9, inclusive, and a pair of tubercles 
on the ventral portion of the anal segment, as well as a dorsal tubercle on the 
terminal portion of the same segment. In general appearance there is a striking 
resemblance to the Langnria larva, as shown in figure exhibited by Dr. Weed, 
but in his drawing there is no indication of the dorsal feet. 

The Club convened at o p.m., and considered the following resolution :— 

Resolved, That it is the sense of the Chib that the meetings of the Association of Economic Entomo- 
logists and of the Entomological Club wonld both be benefited by holding such meetings, if possible, all 
the same time and place as the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

After discussion by Messrs. Fletcher, Osborn, Cook, Alwood, Weed and others, 
the resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The Secretary read a paper by Prof. D. S. Kellicott, of Columbus, 0., upon 
the " Preparatory Stages of Eustrotia caduca." He had collected the larvge upon 
Nuphar aclvena at Rives Junction, Michigan, in 1876. From these he had bred 
a moth, afterwards named by ^Er. Gfrote E. cacluca in the Canadian Entomolo- 
gist, Vol. 8, p. 207. During July of the present year he had again collected the 
insect at Corunna, Michigan, and had succeeded in breeding and describing all the 
stages, which were submitted herewith. 

The larvae found in 1876 were feeding in the fruit but those studied during 
this summer were found upon the leaves. If these latter were floating, the larvae 
were exposed on the upper surface, in other cases they were beneath or concealed 
in folds. A different habit of swimming to that of Arzavia obliquata, which 
progresses by horizontal undulations, was noted. E. caduca swims strongly, but 
by an entirely different motion. The posteriiT third of the body is bent down- 
wards like the tail of a crayfish and then quickly pushed backwards, thus driving 
the insect ahead by jerks. 

Discussed by Messrs. Weed, Webster and others. 

Prof. Cook reported having bred Agrotis C-nigrum through all its stages 
upon black currant, the eggs having been laid in a cluster upon leaves of that 
plant on 1st June — the perfect insect appearing on the 1st of August. 

Prof. H. Osborn read a note on the " Period of Development in Mallophaga." 
The habits of the species of Mallophaga render accurate observations upon the 
time required in development of the eggs a matter of considerable difficulty. 
While in some of the species upon very common birds it is possible to get an 
abundance of material, in other cases the opportunities for obtaining such mate- 
rial are very rare. But in the most common species the difficulty of determining 
the exact time of deposition of eggs, and then of keeping individuals in such 
conditions as to insure a normal development, makes positive observations diffi- 
cult. This being the case, any observations which may add to our knowledge of the 
subject seem of interest, and the present note is ofiered as one such contribution. 



30 



The species chosen in the present case is the JSitzschia pulicare, which is 
almost invariably to be found in abundance on the common chimney swift 
(Chcetura pelasgia.) This bird is an abundant resident of the building in which 
my laboratory is located, and being readily obtained on occount of its tendency to 
fly in at the windows, I suggested to Mr. P. H. Rolfs, a graduate student in 
biology, that he attempt the rearing of larvae from eggs with a view to determine 
length of developmental period in connection with studies of its embryology. 

For this first purpose he secured on two separate occasions a number of the 
eggs, and kept them, part in a tight paste-board box, which was kept warm by 
the heat of his body, the others were enclosed in cotton-plugged tubes under a 
hen that was kept in the laboratory at the time for incubating eggs for embryo- 
logical work. Of the first lot, all kept in pocket, secured July 27th; two eggs 
hatched August 4th, five between August 8-13th, one August ICtb, the last giving 
twenty days, the longest period. 

Of the second lot secured, August 8rd, six hatched between the 8th and 
13th, four hatched August 14th (three in box and one in tube), two August 15th 
(one in box and one in tube), part not hatching, and the longest period in this 
case being thirteen days. 

Assuming that those requiring the longest time had been deposited but a 
short time before the experiment began, we should have from fifteen to twenty 
days as the ordinary time required for the eggs to hatch for this species. 

Mr. F. S. Earle presented some interesting notes upon the injurious insects 
of the season in Southern Mississippi. Diahrotica 12-punctata was a very 
abundant insect, and in addition to its well known food plants, it had been a 
serious pest to peach trees and cabbages. Leaves of the latter, bitten by the 
insect, at once decayed from the point of injury. Cut-worms were very 
destructive in gardens, and cucumber and melon vines were much injured by a 
plant-louse. Potatoes had been much attacked by a black flea-beetle, and the 
tomatoes by the boll-worm in the fruit, and on the leaves by the sphinx' larvae. 

Prof. Cook would like to hear the experience of those present as to a prac- 
tical remedy for the attack of the boll-worm upon the fruit of tomatoes. 

Prof. Osborn said that Mr. Tracy had tried arsenical mixtures with some 
success, and also had attracted the perfect insects to light. 



SOME EXPERIENCES IN REARING INSECTS. 
Miss M. E. Murtfeldt read the following paper r 

In rearing insects, as with many other enterprises in life, we climb the ladder 
to success by the rounds of successive failures, having in many cases to exhaust 
an almost infinite range of " how not to do it " before arriving at its happy 
converse. 

Many and great are the disappointments of the entomologist ; bnt does he 
succumb ? Never ! What single point in the biology of a species has been 
relegated to the absolutely undiscoverable ? I do not know of one, no matter 
how obscure the subject or how little advance has yet been made in the direction 
of its elucidation. 

" Hope springs eternal " in the breast of the entomologist, and patience and 
perseverance have in him their "perfect work," until Nature relents, or is 
caught " off guard," and the secret, so carefully hidden, is revealed. 



31 



I am tempted to enumerate some of the discouraging circumstances encoun- 
tered by the biolos^ist in this field. 

Among the Lepidoptera, a majority of the Bomhycidce, Geometridce and 
NoctuidcB adapt themselves readily to the conditions of the rearing cage. They 
accept the food provided and make the best of it, even after it has become a 
little dry, which must sometimes occur when the caretaker is pressed for time. 
They thrive in the closer and darker air, and take such exercise as they require 
within their narrow walls of glass and wire-cloth, and when the metamorphic 
impulse comes, they contentedly weave their cocoons in the corners of their 
prison, or bury themseves in the two or three inches of cemeterial earth in the 
bottom of the cage, and safely pass those mysterious transformations which 
give to this class of beings their pre-eminent interest. 

But there is a great deal of individuality, or rather, specificality, in insects^ 
and not infrequently specimens of larvae are found for which the collector taxes 
his ingenuity in vain to provide. Not the freshest of leaves, the cleanest swept 
earth or the most well-aired of cages wiil seem to promote their development. 
They wander about the cage with an exhausting activity that pathetically 
suggests a realisation of their imprisoned condition. They nibble languidly at 
their food, and aimlessly spin mats of web in inconvenient places, over the cracks 
of the door or cover, for instance, and, before long, comes the morning, when, 
they are discovered dead and discolored in the bottom of the cage, and no more 
of them to he obtained until another season. Or perhaps the cocoons are spun or 
the transformation to pupse safely effected under ground, and the entomologist 
has full confidence that in due time he will obtain the much desired imago, and, 
when it ma}^ be expected, watches hourly for its emergence, and is rewarded by 
the appearance of an Ophion or a swarm of TaoJiina flies, or of some still 
smaller enemy, whose existence he did not even suspect. 

Again, the collector may be obliged to delegate his cares temporarily to 
another, who, unused to the almost constant supervision necessary, suffers the 
precious larva to starve, or, by an oversight, tosses it out with the withered 
leaves, or crushes it in the hinges of the door, or, still more aggravating, thought- 
lessly raises the cover and allows some long looked for imagine to dart out and 
escape through an open window. All that he will remember for the benefit of 
the person chiefly concerned, will be that it was a moth and " seemed something 
peculiar." As the entomologist cannot afford a separate cage for each species, 
and as he had probably put his choice unknown in with some well known forms 
of which he wishes simply to increase his duplicates, he probably grasps at the 
hope that the escaped insect was one of the latter, and so defers the full realiza- 
tion of his loss until weeks and months have passed and all his expected species 
have emerged, and then he hopes for better success another year, and finds " life 
well worth living " for this and similar reasons, which only an ardent naturalist 
can appreciate. 

In some respects too much care is as subversive of success as too little. For 
instance, the very natural curiosity which the student feels to examine into the 
state of the insect after it has been buried for a short time in the earth. So he 
sifts the soil in his cage; and though he handles it with all caution, the frail 
earthen cell in which the treasure is enclosed falls in pieces, and the poor cater- 
pillar in complete helplessness squirms in the loosened earth. Despairingly he 
tries with clumsy fingers to re-inclose it in the fragments of its cell, or attempts 
to form a substitute by packing the earth so that it may not be smothered. In 
vain. In ninety -nine cases in a hundred he Jiever sees the imago. 

While the hardy pupse of most noctuids will bear any amount of handling, 
and by their activity will beat hard the earth about them at any time, a few 



32 



species absolutely resent the least disturbance. I think that for seven or eight 
successive years Dr. Riley and I tried in vain to obtain the imago of a beautiful larva 
found every autumn in greater or less numbers on Gnajyhalium, and occasionally 
on the Asters and some other Compositce. Not being able to associate it with 
its species we designated it the " pretty cut-worm." It was Dr. Riley's practice 
to have the earth in his cages sifted occasionally during late autumn and winter 
to see how the pup^e were faring, and to have each species collected into its 
particular corner or side of the cage, which was designated by the label on the 
door. 

But in the case of this particular species this orderliness was fatal. After 
Dr. Riley went to Washington, I resolved on the " let alone " policy. I put the 
larvae into a cage with clean earth with an admixture of sand which I dampened 
slightly and only at considerable intervals during the winter, kept the cage in a 
very cool place, and the next summer was rewarded with several line specimens 
of Mamestra legitima, my only disappointment being that it was a species by no 
means uncommon. 

With me Scopelosoraa sidus behaved in an almost equally capricious manner, 
but was, after many trials, finally reared by adopting the same methods as with 
legitima. I now make it a practice to sift or change the earth in my cages only 
in the spring and autumn before the hibernating pupae are formed. Of course, 
if I wish to note pupal characteristics, I have to run the risk of the disturbance, 
but this is only occasional. I have found that frequent dampening when the cages 
are kept in doors, is also detrimental, and that hibernating larvae and pupsB are 
far less likely to sufter from drought than from dampness. 

In rearing the Micro-lepidoptera — in which I have an especial interest — 
various tactics must be pursued, and the imagination is often vainly taxed to 
suggest a provision which the delayed changes and general unrest of the insect 
plainly call for. 

Under natural conditions it is very difficult to keep track of these small 
creatures. The leaves or flowers or fruits on which they may be found feeding 
on one day will be deserted by the next, and during the darkness they will have 
betaken themselves to parts unknown, the most assiduous search failing to 
discover them. In the rearing jar some species adapt themselves very kindly ; 
others will crawl about for days spinning threads of silk over sides and cover 
and finally dry up without efiecting their transformations. 

An accident to which the student is liable, and against which he can with 
difficulty make provision, is to have the larva, which he has perhaps just 
described and figured, escape. How often have I taken up a bottle in which I 
had been rearing a particularly precious unknown, and found a tiny hole in the 
muslin cover, or perhaps a little flap cut at the edge of the bottle, telling only 
too surely of the loss and delay which a further examination verified. The 
annual brooded species which appear in the spring are the hetes noir of the 
Micro-lepidopterist, especially such species as pupate on or just beneath the 
surface of the ground. They have to be cared for during the long, hot summer, 
as well as the autumn and winter, and to keep the safe middle course between 
the Scylla and Charybdis of drought and of the dampness which would promote the 
equally fatal mould, requires most careful attention. The annual brooded species 
which later fold or mine the leaves, or feed in the fruit capsules of various plants, 
or bore the stems, are comparatively easily reared, with a few exceptions. It 
was a number of years before I succeeded in obtaining the moth from an inter- 
esting larva which fed in the capsules of Pentstemon. This was owing to the 
peculiar change of habit during hibernation. After eating all the seeds from 



33 



l)oth divisions of the capsule, it would thoroughly line one all with silk, after 
cutting an aperture for escape, and ensconce itself, as might reasonably be 
supposed, for its winter's sleep. But no ; the neatly lined cell was only a tem- 
porary abode, which, during the inclemency of mid-winter, was to be deserted 
for an entirely different one. Where, in the state of nature. I have not yet been 
able to discover. In my rearing jars it perished, year after year, to my inex- 
pressible disappointment, until finally I wintered a number out of doors in a 
small wire cloth box closed with a cork. From this collection I at last obtained 
the moth — a beautiful Conchylis — from a larva that had bored into and trans- 
formed w^ithin the cork. But for two or three years I had only the single 
specimen, and next to the aggravation of utter failure I rank the possession of 
an unknown unique. It may be new, and if sent to a specialist he will generally 
feel somewhat aggrieved if you reserve the right of description and furthei* 
impose upon him the duty of returning the specimen. Then there is the danger 
of its destruction, either in the mail or express, to be braved, and yet, so long as one 
does not know the species, or be assured that it is new, one never can take full 
satisfaction in having bred it. 

Last year I had the satisfaction of obtaining nearly a dozen imagines of the 
Conchylis in question by providing a number of bits of pith and cork in which 
the larvae bored after their desertion of the capsules where they had fed. 

Whenever I can make satisfactory arrangements for keeping track of them, 
I winter my Micro-larvae and pupae out of doors. Such species as bore the pith 
of stems are very easily cared for, and leaf miners and webbers I enclose on the 
surface of the ground, in some sheltered situation, under wire sieves or covers, 
bringing them in in the spring in order to have the little moths emerge where they 
can more easily be chloroformed or transferred to the cyanide bottle. 

I must confess that I have never had signal success in rearing such species 
of the Tenihredinidce as transform under ground. I have in mind more 
than half a dozen species — the larvae of which are most interesting — of which I 
have so far failed to obtain the imagines, in spite of my utmost care. 

The leaf and root-feeding beetles have always developed satisfactorily for 
me, but the Oeram.bycidce, which feed on growing wood, have given me much 
trouble, and, in many cases, failed me utterly. 

Orthoptera require but little care, as also do leaf-feeding Hemiptera, but the 
Cannibal species of both these orders are more difficult to cater to, and often 
refuse a diet that one would think would be irresistible. This is especially true 
of the carnivorous bugs which I have found require large space and ample 
provision to preserve them from fraternal rapacity. 

With the aquatic orders I have had but little opportunity for experiment, 
but think they must f arnish many very interesting subjects. 

I believe that costly insectaries are being constructed by many entomologists, 
and no doubt will afford room for much thorough study of forms and habits. 
But such costly appliances are not absolutely necessary, and sometimes make 
observations more difficult than when the conveniences are more primitive. 

A secure enclosure, fresh food, fresh air and clean water in the bottles are 
almost the only requisites in rearing the herbivorous species, and the more 
constantly the cage or jar is under observation the more thoroughly of course 
are the history and habits of the species revealed to us. When I wish to know 
all about a species, I keep the cage or jar on one corner of my desk and watch 
its occupant in the intervals of other work. 



3 (en.) 



34 



I cannot hope that I have conveyed much information in these notes ta 
those who have gone over the same ground, but I am at least sure that I have 
recounted some of the experiences of every biological student of insect life, and 
can sympathise in hi^ disappointments and appreciate the satisfaction oi his 
successes. 



THIRD DAY'S SESSION. 

The Club met on Friday at 8.30 a.m. Dr. Weed presented a short paper ort 
the habits of Lixus concavus. 

As reported in the bulletin of the Ohio Experimental Station, Mr. Alwood 
had found this insect injuring the stems of rhubarb. During the past summer 
he had bred it from all parts of the stem of the common curled dock. 

Prof. Alwood stated that he had observed the larvae of Gortyna nitela eating 
those of Lixus, 

Dr. Weed read a paper upon the habits of Psephenus Lecontei. 

Prof. Webster and Mr. Fletcher also spoke on the habits of this beetle. 

Prof. Hargitt read a note upon a large foliaceous gall which destroyed the 
tips of the stems of various species of Soliclago at Bloomington, Indiana. In 
many instancas as many as ninety-nine per cent, of the flower stems had been 
destroyed. 

Prof. Hargitt read a note upon the Canker Worm. He said : " My attention 
was drawn to an orchard near Oxford, Ohio, which, for three or four years, had 
been seriously affected by this pest. In May, 1890, I went to examine the 
orchard and found it thoroughly over-run by the larvae, many of the trees being 
actually dead, and several others in a very weak condition. The orchard, viewed 
at a distance, had the appearance of having been burned, the leaves being brown 
and dead. The trees were most attacked upon the outer rows, particularly 
those adjoining a wood. I recommended spraying with one of the arsenites, but 
it was too late for the present season. I observed several small birds in the 
orchard actually engaged in feeding upon the larvae, amongst them the cedar bird^ 
blue bird, summer warbler, chipping sparrow and field sparrow." 

Prof, Hargitt also read a note upon Cermatia forceps. He had found that 
this Myriapod had become abundant in houses and the college building at Oxford, 
Ohio, during the past two or three years. He had experienced the same difficulty 
in keeping the insects alive in captivity, as was mentioned by Dr. Lintner in his 
4th Report. He had succeeded in keeping them for several days and inducing 
them to take prey by keeping them in dark quarters in a tin canister during the 
day. When so confined they had fed freely upon house-flies, and other insects 
supplied them. 

Prof. Webster spoke of the predaceous habits of G. forceps, and its special 
fondness for the Croton-bug (Ectohia germanica). 

Mr. Fletcher had observed the insect when visiting Mr. Howard at Washing- 
ton, D. C, who had described to him its remarkable habit of capturing the 
Croton-bug by springing over it and thus encaging it beneath its many curved 
legs. He was of the opinion that those who had failed to keep this insect in 
captivity had done so from omitting to supply a sufficiency of moisture, and 
thought that Mr. Hargitt's success in the instance mentioned, where the insect 
was put in a tin can, was more due to this cause than to the darkness. Myria- 
pods are general found in damp, dark places. 



85 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

The Club proceeded to elect officers for the ensuing year. Prof. Cook, the 
retiring President, congratulated the members upon the harmony which had 
existed throughout the sessions, and was glad to find that, although some old and 
pessimistic members of the Club had predicted that it had run its course and 
would soon flicker out like a spent candle, he was glad to find that the present 
meetings had not only been the best attended for many years, but that the 
discussions and papers had been equally interesting to those of any meeting 
which he had had the pleasure of taking part in. He wished the Club every 
success aud trusted that it would grow stronger and stronger every year. The 
following officers were elected : — 

President, Prof. Herbert Osborn, Ames, luwa. 

Vice-President, Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt, St. Louis, Mo. 

Secretar}^ Dr. C. M. Weed, Columbus, Ohio. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF INSECTS. 

Prof. Osborn, at the invitation of the President, introduced the subject of 
the use of contagious diseases in combating injurious insects. He said that he 
had already published a paper in the Tiansactions of the Eastern Iowa Horti- 
cultural Society for 1886, pp. 400-4()5, upon the subject; but that it was of such 
importance that he desired to hear it discussed by the members of the Club. 
He first mentioned the well-known fungus and bacterial diseases which attack 
insects, as Muscadine, Grassen or Jaundice, Pebrine, Flacherie or Flaccidity, 
Foul-brood of Bees, Fly and Grasshopper Fungus, and the White-grub Fundus, 
and called attention to the fact that we were already able to control those which 
affect important domestic species, as Silkworms and Bees, and that to some 
extent at least we are able to control those available as agents in destroyino- 
injurious species. After considering the various conditions limiting the appli- 
cability of this means, he drew the tollowing conclusions : — 

(1) That there are diseases ampl}^ sufficient as a basis for economic work, 
the bacterial forms giving the most promise for all cases where early results are 
desired, while those due to fungi, so far as present knowledge goes, propagating 
slowly, can only be used as slow but efficient checks to injurious forms, the 
most that we can do with them being to introduce them in localities where 
they are not already found. 

(2) That the diseases can be controlled to the extent of preserving the 
germs for a season and transporting them from place to place to use for inocula- 
tion, but that their spread in nature will be affected by conditions beyond 
control, while only such insects as occur gregariously, or live in mingled hosts, 
can be attacked to advantage. 

(3) That the cost of application would prevent its adoption except in certain 
forms. 

(4) That we must oonsider this method of contending with insects at best 
as but one of a number of profitable methods to be used in certain cases where 
other methods are insufficient, and to supplement other methods when it can 
be done to advantage. With this end in view, the diseases of insects are worthy 
of the most careful study, and will not, he thought, disappoint the investigator 
in their final results. 



36 



Mr. Fletcher thought that the chief difficulty with regard to these fungus 
diseases was their cultivation so that they might be available at the time when 
needed. One trouble with him had been carrying them over the winter. 

Prof. Hargitt spoke of a fungus disease which had attacked the canker 
worm. 

Prof. Cook thought the greatest difficulty in ;naking use of contagions 
diseases for the destruction of insects was the fact that the insects which it was 
desired to treat were not always in a susceptible condition. 

Prof. Garman thought that although fungus diseases were difficult to 
introduce, bacterial diseases would probably be more controllable. 

The meeting adjourned till 5 o'clock. 



VARIOUS INSECTS. 

Prof. Atkinson spoke on the "Injurious Insects of Alabama." A bud worm 
had been extremely injurious to young corn, piercing the central shoot and 
destroying its growth. JDiabrotica 12-punctata had also been injurious in the 
same manner ; and, if there were not sufficient food in the stem, the larvae 
descended to the roots and tunnelled out irregular channels on the surface. They 
pupated in the ground. A new attack had been observed on the " Irish potato," 
viz., by the Cabbage Plusia, which had attacked the leaves. The same insect had 
been very injurious to cabbages. In the southern part of the State more had 
been done by the Plusia than by the cabbage worm. At Mobile farmers had 
complained that 50 per cent, of their melons had been injured by a worm. 
Scohjiiis Tugvblosus had been very abundant at Auburn in the spring, attacking 
trunks which appeared to be perfectly sound. Onions had been badly injured 
by a species of Thrips. Another species had also been injurious to cotton plants. 

Prof. Cook stated that he had also seen a Thrips injuring onions in Michigan. 

Prof. Webster stated that he had studied Scolytus rugulosiis and had found 
that it invariably attacked trees which were injured. In a single instance, where 
the beetles had commenced operations on a sound tree, he found that they 
afterwards left it. 

Prof. Cook made some remarks upon the effect of mild winters upon insect 
presence. He had found cut-worms and sav^^-flies verj^ abundant in Michigan 
during the present season. He had also bred a new borer from the black currant, 
i.e., the small longicorn beetle Hyper-platys maculatus. He had also found that 
the larvge of Aegeria typuliformis had been largely destroyed by a fungus 
DTOwth like that of the white grub. The leaves of cherry, pear and quince had 
been badly attacked by the larv^ of saw-flies, but they had been easily kept in 
check by applications of road dust. 

Dr. C. M. Weed presented a paper upon the Oviposition of Dectes spinosus 
upon Ambrosia trifida." He also gave some account of the insect, in all its 
stao-es, from specimens which he had bred. 

During the meeting a most interesting set of photographs was exhibited by 
Prof. Webster, showing a likeness of Thomas Say, his birthplace, the house where 
he lived during the greater part of the time he was writing his works, his tomb 
and an autograph. Prof. Webster had a few set^ of the photographs struck off 
when his own were printed and is willing to let entomologists have them at the 
actual cost of production. 



37 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

The second annual meeting of the Association was held at Champaign, 
IlHnois, in room 6 of the University of Illinois, beginning November 11th. The 
following officers and members were present during the meeting : 

President, C. V. Riley, Washington ; 1st Vice-president, S. A. Forbes, Illinois ; 
2nd Vice-president, A. J. Cook, Michigan ; Secretary, John B. Smith, New 
Jersey. J. M. Aldrich, S. Dakota ; W. B. Alwood, Virginia ; G. F. Atkinson, 
Alabama ; M. H. Beckwith, Delaware ; James Fletcher, Ottawa, Canada ; 
Lawrence Bruner, Nebraska ; H. Garman, Kentucky ; C. P. Gillette, Iowa ; F. W. 
Goding, Illinois ; C. A. Hart, Illinois ; F. L. Harvey, Maine ; L. 0. Howard, 
Washington ; John Marten, Illinois ; Herbert Osborn, Iowa ; F. H. Snow, Kansas ; 
H. E. Summers, Tennessee ; Roland Thaxter, Connecticut ; F. M. Webster, Indiana ; 
Clarence M. Weed, Ohio ; C. W. Woodworth, Arkansas ; E. F. GofF, Wisconsin. 

Several others interested in entomology, not members of the Association, also 
attended the meeting, giving an average attendance of about 20 at every meeting. 

The secretary read his report and submitted some letters for action by the 
Association. 

On the motion of Prof. Cook it was decided that an assessment of 25c. should 
be made from each member attending the meeting to defray the necessary 
expenses. 

The committee on co-operation (Profs. Riley, Cook, Forbes, Comstock and 
Lintner) reported progress and was continued. 

The requisites of membership were discussed and Drs. A. S. Packard, D. S. 
Kellicott and Messrs. J. M. Aldrich, E. V. Wilcox, C. A. Hart and A D. Hopkins 
were placed on the list of active members. Mr. E. W. Doran was elected an 
associate member, 

The constitution was amended by striking out the provision allowing special 
meetings to be called at the request of members. 



SECOND DAY'S SESSION. 

On November 12th 29 members were present, including some ladies, and the 
Hon. Edwin Wiilits assistant secretary of agriculture for the United States. 
The president, Prof. Riley, delivered his annual address on " The Outlook in 
Applied Entomology." This address was a masterly effort and was intently 
hstened to by all who had the good fortune to hear it. It will be published in 
full in the pages of Insect Life. 

Mr. James Fletcher, of Ottawa, spoke in high terms of the paper. He said : 
" You have drawn our attention to the fact, Mr. President, that this is the most 
remarkable meeting of economic entomologists w hich has ever met together, and 
I feel sure, sir, that everyone present will agree with me that your address is one 
of the most remarkable we have ever had the privilege of listening to. You have 
covered so much ground and spoken upon so many subjects on which we know 
you to be the highest authority, not only from the exceptional advantages you 
possess from your official position, but also from the experience you have gained 
from earnest and close attention for a quarter of a century to this special subject 
which we have gathered together to-day to discuss, that if we heard nothing else we 
should be well repaid for the trouble of attending this meeting. This great know- 
ledge makes yon facile princeps the most eminent living economic entomologist — a 
title to which, on account of the work you have done in developing the science of 
practical entomology, no one will dispute your claim. The present meeting 



38 



being a joint one of the Association of EcoQomic Entomologists and of the Entomo- 
logical Committee of the U. S. Experiment Stations leads me to make these 
remarks, because probably the question which is most engaging the attention of 
many of us at the present time is whether any good purpose will be served by 
maintaining both of these organizations. We know that the Committee of the 
Experiment Stations must meet if the directors of stations order it ; but T feel 
conlfident that the necessarily limited number of entomologists in that committee, 
even if every station eventually employs such an officer, cannot do such good work 
for the science and give theiji equal opportunities, to those offered by an organiza- 
tion of the nature of the Association of Economic Entomologists, which will include 
many eminent men who are excluded from active membership by the rules of the 
committee. I refer to such men as Prof. Riley and his assistants. Dr. Packard, 
Mr. French, Dr. Lintner, and hosts of other economic entomologists in the United 
States as well as the Canadian entomologists and many others who would be 
pleased to join in various parts of the world. I submit to the meeting that there 
is room for good work from both of these organizations and that it would be 
extremely ill-advised to let either of them drop to the ground for each should be 
of the greatest assistance to the other. I believe, too, that to no one can the 
Association be of more use than to the Experiment Station Entomologists, and 
therefore they should make every effort to sustain an association at the meetings 
of which they must always have greater freedom than they can have in the com- 
mittee, where the proceedings will always be subject to a certain degree of 
restraint, both as to the time allowed for discussion and the subjects brought 
forward. The Entomological Committee is specially a meeting of the Entomo- 
logists of the Experiment Stations and any one else will always, to a certain 
extent, feel himself an outsider no matter how cordially the hand of friendship 
may be extended to him. The president has stated that he does not care where 
the work is done so that it is carried on vigorously. This is probably the case, 
and the gentlemen I have mentioned have very little to learn from the meeting 
compared with the advantages which will accrue to us from having such men 
present at the meetings. I cannot help thinking that we shall make a serious 
mistake if we allow an organization to drop which will ensure us their syoipathy, 
attendance and services and will at the same time form a bond of union between 
the economic entomologists of the whole world. 

The address was also highly complimented by Prof. Cook, who spoke of the 
advantao^e of co-operatioD. between the Association and the Committee of the 
Experiment Stations. He suggested some ways in which these two organizations 
oould be mutually beneficial. 

Prof. John B. Smith thought there was no necessity to have two bodies 
composed of nearly the same members meeting on the same days and at the same 
place and covering the same ground. He strongly advocated an effort being 
made to gain from the Association of Agricultural Colleges the same advantages 
for the entomological committee as were at present offered by the Association of 
economic entomologists. This, he thought, would be of advantage to station 
workers, at least, as it would give them a recognized place in the official body of 
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. 

Dr. C. M. Weed thought that there was some misunderstanding as to the 
gtatus of some of the gentlemen who had been mentioned. The Canadian 
Experiment Station was represented in the main body and its officers have the 
same rights and standing in committees as have those of the other stations. The 
Department of Agriculture is equally represented both in the main body and m 
iJiQ committees. 



39 



In reply to Prof. Smith, Mr. Fletcher said that there was no intention of 
always having the meetings of the Association of Economic Entomologists at the 
same time and place as the Committee of the Association of Agricultural 
Experiment Stations. The place of meeting would be decided annually. As to 
covering the same ground, if the Association of Economic Entomologists continued 
to exist, it would draw into its membership entomologists from all parts of the 
world while the committee could only contain the entomolos^ists employed at the 
various experiment stations. In answer to Dr. Weed he was sure that others 
than experiment station entomologists would always feel themselves to a large 
extent outsiders. 

Prof. A. J. Cook of Michigan, read a paper on " Work of the Entomologists in 
Experiment Stations," in which he gave his ideas of the manner in which bulletins 
should be prepared and detailed his own method of reaching the agricultural 
public. 

There was an interesting discussion on these subjects participated in by 
Messrs. Woodworth, Harvey, Weed, Smith and Aldrich. Dr. Weed spoke of the 
plan of furnishing articles to the manufacturers of the plates known as " patent 
insides," which get a large circulation in rural papers. 

Prof. Smith thought the best way to reach farmers was attending and deliver- 
ing addresses at farmers' institute meetings. 

There was considerable discussion as to the advisability of using old and 
well known information in bulletins. It was, however, generally conceded that 
this was necessary so as to make the bulletins of the greatest use to agriculturists. 
Frequently well known insects appear in destructive numbers and it is necessary 
to give their complete life history. 

Prof. J, B. Smith spoke on " Fertilizers as Insecticides," giving his experience 
with Kainit, and muriate of potash. He spoke highly of their use against cutworms 
and species of aphides which worked beneath the surface of the ground. 

Prof. Riley gave some of his experience with ashes and other materials con- 
taining potash. Mr. L. 0. Howard read a valuable and extremely interesting paper 
on " The Habits of Pachyneuron," which demonstrated the good work which is 
being done by the entomologists of the Division of Entomology at Washington, 
The question of breeding these and other hymenopterous parasites was discussed 
by Messrs. Howard and Harvey. In answer to questions from Messrs. Harvey, 
Fletcher, Cook and Summers, Mr. Howard gave instructions as to the best method 
of rearing, mailing and mounting specimens. 

Mr. Smith read some notes on the Plum Curculio in which he gave the results 
of some observations upon eggs laid in apples. He found that the larvae came to 
maturity only in such fruit as fell from the tree. He was therefore of the 
opinion that it was necessary for it to be in a state of partial decay. He had 
found the characteristic injury and larvse of the curculio in the young fruit of 
Amelanchier Canadensis. He pointed out the importance of collecting and des- 
troying all fallen fruit. 

This subject was spoken on by Messrs. Beckwith, Harvey, Gillette, 
Woodworth, Cook and Fletcher. Prof. Smith gave also an experience with the 
Rosebug," giving an account of serious injury by this insect in Southern New 
Jersey during the past season. All remedies tried had proved of no avail on 
account of the enormous numbers of the beetles. He had used pyrethrum, copper 
fungicides, kerosene emulsion, tobacco, whitewash. The greatest measure of 
success had followed the use of a " slodge soap." He believed the only remedy 
for grapes was to bag the bunches. 

Messrs. Howard and Alwood made remarks on this subject and the meeting 
adjourned. 



40 



THIRD DAY'S SESSION. 

Oa November 13, there was a morning meeting of the association ; 21 
persons present. The president announced that the first business of the meeting 
would be the election of officers for the ensuing year. The following were elected : 
President, Mr. James Fletcher, Dominion Entomologist of Canada ; 1st Vice- 
president, Prof. F. H. Snow, Kansas ; 2nd Vice-president, Prof. Herbert Osborn, 
Iowa ; Secretary, Mr. L. 0. Howard, Washington, D.C. 

The advisability of all members of the association sending their bulletins to 
other members was brought up and there was a unanimous expression that this 
should be done. This will not only be a means of apprising each of what others 
are doing, but will act as a bond of union amongst the members of the 
association. 

It was decided after some discussion to hold the next meeting of the associa- 
tion at Washington, D.C., beginning just before the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The constitution was amended by striking out the word " official" in the 
title, and an amendment Avas submitted abolishing the distinction between official 
and non-official members as to rights and privileges. 

Prof. Smith read a paper entitled " Some questions relating to Aphides." 
Great stress was laid upon the value of the poriferous system of the antennae of 
the winged forms in distinguishing species. Only by these characters could the 
adults of Aphis mali and A. maidis be separated. The poriferous system of a 
wingless viviparous female of any species was always like that of the larval form 
— from this Prof. Smith considered that the process known as " gemmation " was 
a case of true reproduction by larvae. 

The matter was discussed by Messrs. Webster, Howard and Osborn who 
agreed with this pretty generally accepted theory. 

Prof. C. P. Gillette read a paper — " Notes on the Plum Curculio and Plum 
Gouger," in which he detailed his observations relative to the egg-laying habits 
of the two insects. Mr. Lawrence Bruner spoke on " beet-root insects." The 
increased area under sugar-beet in the State of Nebraska had rendered a study of 
the insects attacking this crop a necessity He gave a list of all the species he 
had found attacking the plant. 

Mr. Fletcher asked if any practical remedy had been devised for the 
Anthomyian fly which mined in the leaves of beets and mangolds. 

None of those present had had any experience with the insect in injurious 
numbers. 

Mr. Howard asked whether the European pest of the beet-root (Silpha 
Opaca) had be enobserved by Mr. Bruner or any one else as occurring in America. 

Mr. Bruner had not noticed it. 

Mr. Fletcher expressed interest in the life-history of the Collops beetles and 
asked if anything was known concerning them. He had only taken them when 
sweeping grasses. Prof. Smith had taken them on Solidago. 

Mr. Smith related his observations on "an invasion by the Clover-leaf 
Beetle." This had appeared in great numbers in New Jersey during the summer 
but ^was entirely exterminated by a fungous disease. 

Mr. Howard mentioned a similar attack in Pennsylvania where the insect 
had developed a fondness for timothy {Phleum pratense) Specimens were sent to> 
Washington and caged over this grass, upon which they were observed to feed. 



41 



Mr. Wood worth mentioned that he had observed in Arkansas three epidemics 
amongst insects which were so severe as apparently to exterminate the infested 
species : one of these was the tomato worm. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether Phytonomus nigrirostris had been observed as 
injurious to clover. He had frequently found the larvae feeding on the heads of 
clover as well as the characteristic cocoons. He had found it in many parts of 
Canada, but upon one occasion, as recorded in his report for 1884, it was 
injuriously abundant at Dalhousie in New Brunswick. Mr. Gillette also spoke on 
insects injurious to clover. 

Prof. Smith gave an account of some experiments with preservative fluids. 
He had found a mixture of equal parts of acetic acid and alcohol very satisfactory 
both in regard to preserving form and colour of delicate insects. 

The subject was earnestly discussed by all present as being a subject of much 
importance. Mr. Woodworth gave as a method which he had found satisfactory 
for larvae, to kill in water heated to 90° centigrade : leave from 1 to 5 minutes ; 
then put in alcohol 35° 1 to 2 hours, 50° from 6 to 8 hours, 75° for 24 hours or 
more and then to absolute alcohol. This would usually preserve perfectly and 
was a recognized process for hardening and preserving for histological purposes. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether in the case of large larvae it was necessary to 
puncture the epidermis so as to allow the preservative fluid to penetrate. 

Mr. Woodworth answered that this was not often necessary. 

Mr. Fletcher spoke of a large series of the larvae of Sphinx chersis which he 
had taken during the past summer upon various species of Fraximis. They varied 
so remarkably in colour that he was able to separate about 40 which showed 
different markings from the usual glaucous green to a rich vinous purple with 
yellow epidermal dots. He had placed them iu a jar of 35° alcohol and had 
found that those at the top were very much discoloured and that those lower 
down were less so, those at the bottom being of good colour. On placing some 
in stronger alcohol the discoloration was intensified. He thought the discolora- 
tion was due to the gradual decay of the central portions of large larva?, but could 
not understand why those at the bottom were less discoloured than those at the 
top of the jar. 

Prof. Forbes stated that he used the method described by Mr. Woodworth in 
his laboratory and found it fairly successful. It does not preserve greens well, 
but browns are preserved and the markings are well shown. 

Mr. John Marten said that hot alcohol was a convenient way of preserving 
specimens by this method and that it answered equally well as killing in hot water. 

Prof. Forbes read a " Summary history of the corn plant louse. ' This was 
an intensely interesting paper and gave the results of continued observations for 
some years by Prof. Forbes and his assistants. It gave the life-history both 
above and below the ground. The relations existing between the aphis and the 
ants which were always found in company with it were explained and suggestions 
for remedies based on these observations were made. 

The discussion on the paper was postponed until the next session. 

At the afternoon session 18 persons were present. The president called for 
discussioa of Prof. Forbes's paper. Messrs. Howard, Riley, Fletcher and Forbes 
discussed the points brought forward and the difficulties of getting at accurate 
and final results were brought out. The question of possible relationship between 
the apple plant louse and the corn plant louse was discussed by Messrs. Riley 
and Forbes. 



42 



Mr. Howard asked whether Prof. Forbes considered his experiments with the 
apple plant louse were satisfactory. 

Prof. Forbes thought not entirely but they were the best they could do under 
the circumstances. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether the habits of different broods in species which 
migrated from one plant to another were not very different and therefore difficult 
to experiment with — as, for instance would the hop inhabiting form of Pkorodon 
humidi live upon plum if placed there artificially and vice versa. 

Prof. Riley thought it would not. It is very difficult to do artificially what 
nature does in her own time and in her own way. Sometimes an insect will not 
colonize upon a plant at a certain season, to which at another time of the year it 
migrates naturally. He asked if the experiments made upon ihe root forms were 
done carefully as there are many species which resemble each other which have 
root forms. 

Prof. Forbes stated that great care had been taken in carrying out the 
experiments. 

Prof. Forbes read a paper " On the life-history of White-grubs, with descrip- 
tions of new stages." Current mistakes with regard to the life -histories of these 
injurious insects were pointed out. Several species of Lachnosterna were observed 
to reach the imago state in the autumn instead of in spring as usua lly stated and 
the differences between groups of larvae were pointed out. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Smith, Howard, Forbes and Riley, who 
confirmed many of the points made in the paper. 

Mr. C. A. Hart read a carefully prepared paper on " The life-history of Wire- 
worms," in which he drew particular attention to distinguishing characters by 
which these larvae might be divided into groups. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Cook, Gillette and Bruner. 

Prof. Cook had found that one crop of buckwheat will not prevent injury the 
next year. 

Mr. Fletcher gave some " Notes upon Injurious Insects of the year in 
Canada," Cut- worms of various kinds had been locally abundant. Agrotis turris 
had been destructive in gardens to fiowers and vegetables. Hadena arctica and 
H. devastatrix had injured fall wheat and grasses in the spring. He was more 
than ever in favour of the poisoned trap remedy for cut-worms. Agrotis fennica 
had injured clover. The caterpillar of Pieris rapce had been very troublesome, 
but was easily destroyed with pyrethrum powder diluted with four times its 
quantity of common flour or slaked lime. 

Plutella cruciferarum had also done much harm to cabbages in the 
North-west Territories and British Columbia. This is much more difficult 
to destroy with pyrethrum than the last named. The Cabbage Root-maggot 
had attacked cabbages severely, but had been successfully destroyed by 
syringing about half a cupful of hellebore tea round each root and then 
hoeing the soil well up round the stem. He had made some interesting studies 
of the Hessian fly which agreed in the main with those published by Prof. 
Forbes in a late bulletin. Spring wheat sown in the end of April had been 
attacked at the root in the same way as wheat is injured by the autumn brood. 
From the same wheat plants he had bred the Hessian fly, the Wheat Bulb-worra 
and Oscinis variabilis. Insects injurious to fruit trees had been represented by 
the Plum Curculio, the Codling Moth, the leaf roller of the apple and the Canker 
worm. All of these had been successfully treated with Paris green. Observa- 



43 



tions on forest insects had shown him that the large cerambycid larvae from eggs 
laid early in the season produced the perfect insects the next year ; but those laid 
late passed two years before coming to maturity. He had taken a female of 
Monohammus confusor with the abdomen filled with eggs as late as the middle 
of September. The attacks of Nematus eriohsonii on larches in the Provinces of 
Quebec and New Brunswick were described. 

Prof. Webster asked whether Agrotis fennica had been observed feeding on 
cereals. 

Mr. Fletcher had found that it fed primarily on clover, but when occurring 
in numbers is almost omnivorous. Asparagus beds, raspbeiTies and strawberries 
were injured and some young forest trees grown in nursery rows and of various 
species had had the terminal buds destroyed. 

Prof. Cook had found the larvae to eat everything. It had attacked blue 
grass and timothy severely. He was not positive about its attacking grain but 
believed it would. 

Prof. Smith, speaking of the best way to use pyrethrum powder, said that he 
liad found it most satisfactory in water. 

Mr. Beckwith had found it could be used most satisfactorily with lime. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether the dry powder was not as a rule better than the 
water mixture. He bad found it so in his experience. 

Prof. Cook and Prof. Gillette had found it so also. 

Prof. Summers found that the difficulty with water mixtures was to make 
them adhere to the plant : he asked whether the addition of soap would make 
them stick better. 

Mr. Fletcher said it would on such plants as threw off liquids by reason of a 
waxy secretion on the leaves, as the cabbage, etc., etc. 

Prof. Cook asked whether Mr. Fletcher still made up his cut-worm traps in 
bundles. He had found it most satisfactory to put a supply of poisoned vegeta- 
tion on a platform waggon and then pitch it off with a fork. 

Mr. Fletcher answered that he did and not only that but he found that it paid 
for the extra trouble to cover the bundles with shingles which kept them from 
drying up so soon. He warned those who advised this remedy to mention that 
the cut-worms do not lie under them in sight, but burrow beneath the soil and 
are not seen unless looked for. They sometimes wander off to a distance of two 
or three feet. 

Prof. Cook confirmed this. He used clover largely. He sometimes sprayed 
a patch with poison as it stood and then mowed it and used it as traps. 

Mr, Fletcher had found that clover was not the most satisfactory plant for 
liim at Ottawa. It is frequently not far enough advanced in the early spring 
when needed and did not hold the poison well. He always recommended any 
succulent plant and was careful to tell farmers that they could use almost any 
weed growing about their fence corners, He had found Lepidium Virginicum, 
pepper grass, a very attractive plant. Ghenopodium album, lamb's quarters, is 
also greedily eaten by cut-worms ; but it is difficult to make the poison adhere to 
it. For such plants it is necessary either to dust them with dry powder after 
•damping them or to rub up some soap in the water. 

Prof. Cook had found mullein to be a most attractive plant for cut- worms. 
The meeting adjourned to meet again next year at Washington. 



44 



KITCHEN-GARDEN PESTS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

In writing on insect pests I have not hoped to tell of any new discoveries. 
My ohject has been to present in a concise form, for the use of husbandmen and 
hous wives, such particulars as I have thought might be interesting and useful 
to them. I have wished to do my part towards the making of the annual reports 
of the Entomological Society of Ontario handy repertories of practical informa- 
tion. 

I shall in this paper tell of kitchen-garden pests, grouping them as flies, lice^ 
beetles, butterflies and moths. 

Flies {Order, Diptera). 

The Eadish Fly (Anthomyia raphani. Harris). — This fly appears in the- 
end of June and the beginning of July. It is rather less than half an inch in 
expanse of wings. Its colour is ash grey. The wings are transparent with a 
yellowish tinge at the base. The halteres or balancers are yellow. The face is 
silvery. The eyes are copper-coloured. The insect la^^s its eggs on the stems of 
the radish near the ground. The newly -hatched maggots penetrate the swelling 
roots, enlarging their mines as they grow and filling them with frass, rendering 
the radishes quite unfit for food. When full grown the maggots leave the root 
and change to pupae in the soil. The full grown maggot is about a quarter of an 
inch long, truncated at the end and gradually tapering to a point at the head. 
This is furnished with a pair of black nippers. At the truncated end of the 
creature may be seen the outer prolongations of the two main tracheae, and round 
the edge of it a number of teeth or tentaculse. The general colour of the maggot 
is shining white. 

I have found that radishes sown on rich soil as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground — at Quebec, as soon as the snow disappears, that is to say in the begin- 
ning of May — will generally attain a growth of an inch and a quarter in diameter 
before they begin to show the operations of the maggot. I have this year made 
three sowings. The first, in May, was a success. Of the second, made early in 
June, about half of the radishes were fit for the table. Of the third, made in the 
end of the month, hardly any were eatable. They grew to a large size, but were 
bored through and through by the maggots. These were operating as late as 
October. On the 21st of November I had a number of roots dug up from under 
the snow. They contained no maggots, but showed recent traces of them and 
holes at the lower side where the creatures had made their exit into the soil. 

The remedies that have been suggested against the radish fly have been such 
as by their foul smell are likely to drive the fly away, carbolic acid, gas-lime, etc. 
I have not much faith in such protectives. It seems to me that those who would 
raise late radishes must do so in frames covered, not with glass, but with fine 
netting fastened to slats. 

The OniOxV Fly (Phorhia ceparum, Meigen). — This fly (Fig. 11) also 
appears in June. It is ash-coloured and is set sparsely with black 



45 



hairs. It has an interrupted dorsal stripe on the abdomen. The wings are 
clear. It measures half an inch in expanse of wings, and a quarter of an 

inch in length of body. The mother tiy 
lays her white oval eggs on the edge of 
the sheath of the onion, near the ground, 
seldom depositing more than six on one 
plant. The eggs hatch in a few days, and 
the maggots, which in general appearance 
resemble those of the radish fly, work their 
way downward, inside the sheath, to the 
bulb. Having devoured one bulb they will 
pass on to another. They may often be 
found clustered on the outside of the bulb. 
It takes them a fortnight to attain their 
growth, and in another fortnight the perfect 
flies appear. While the onions are yet very 
3'oung soot and wood-ashes should be scat- 
tered over the bed as a preventive, and 
where the maggots are really working hot water should be applied to the bulbs 
with a watering can. This will destroy the maggots without injuring the plants. 

For a more full account of this pest see Dr. Bethune's excellent article on 
Remedies for Noxious Insects^' in the Society's 19th annual report. 

The Cabbage Fly {Anthomyia drassicce, Bouche). — The cabbage fly is ash- 
grey. The male has three black longitudinal lines on the thorax, a black dorsal 
line on the abdomen, and black bands at the edges of the segments. In the female 
the lines on the thorax and the bands on the abdomen are wanting. 

The female fly lays her eggs at the junction of the lowest leaves with the 
stem. The larvse eat the rootlets and penetrate the main root and the stock. 
The plant speedily withers away. In wet seasons especially the insects are often 
very destructive. 

It has been recommended as a preventive that, at the time of planting, the 
roots and stems of the cabbage plants should be dipped in weak lye of ashes. As 
a remedy Dr. Lintner tells us (1st Annual Report of Injurious and other Insects 
of the State of New York. p. 190), " Watering the plants with lime-water has 
been found to be of service in killing the larvae." 

The Root Fly (Anthomyia radicum, Linn). — The male of the root fly has 
the thorax on the upper side, marked with three black longitudinal stripes and 
three grey ones. The abdomen has a black dorsal line and is crossed with black 
lines at the sutures. The female is lighter in colour and much resembles A. 
hrassicce, but it has three fuscous longitudinal lines on the thorax. She lays her 
eggs in the crown of the turnip or other root. These hatching, the ochre-coloured 
maggots work down into the bulb. When full grown they leave the bulb and 
pupate in the earth. The flies appear in the spring. 

The use of superphosphate as a manure will preserve the turnips from the 
attacks of the fly. 

The Beet-Leaf Miner {Ghortophila hetarum, Lintner). — This is a small 
fly, expanding four-tenths of an inch only. The body colour is grey. The thorax 
has three dusky stripes. The wings have a brownish tinge ; and the legs are 
black. It appears in June, and lays its beautifully reticulated eggs on the under 




Fig. 11. 



46 



surface of the leaves. The larvjB work in' the leaf, between the upper skin and 
the lower, consuming the parenchyma. The}" are, when full grown, a quarter of 
an inch long, translucent in appearance, pointed at the head, which is furnished 
with black nippers, and truncated at the other extremity. To pupate they leave 
the plant and enter the soil. The pupa-case (puparium) is chestnut brown. From, 
it the fly escapes in about twenty days. (See Dr. Lintner's 1st Annual Report 
on the Insects of New York State.) 

The method of dealing with this insect is plainly to break ofl the affected 
leaves and to crush them under foot, or throw them into boiling water. 

Lice (Order, Hemiptera). 

The Bean Louse (Aphis fahoe ?). — A few years ago I found on some Mazagan 
beans that I was growing in my garden at Cowansville, a cluster of plant lice. 
They were lead-coloured and rather large. I had read of the marvellous increase 
of the Aphis, and I resolved to let these specimens on my beans live out their 
life and have their own way. The consequence was, that in a few weeks the 
whole row of beans — and it was a long one — was blackened with Aphides. This 
was quite in accordance with Reaumur's statement that one aphis can produce 
about 90 young ones, and that in five generations the increase from the one will 
amount to 594^,900,000. As the season went on great numbers of the larvae of one 
or two species of Lady-birds (Coccinellidae) appeared on the scene and worked 
great havoc amongst the hosts of the enemy. . 

In dealing with a pest such as this, watchfulness and promptitude are re- 
quired. The first clusters of the aphis should be picked off and destroyed. 

The Cabbage Louse (Aphis brassicce, Linnaeus).— This insect is often very 
abundant. It is found on the under side of cabbage leaves, and has a whitish,, 
mealy appearance. 

Dusting lightly with flour of brimstone has been recommended as a remedy 
for it. 

Beetles {Order, Coleoptera). 

The Colorado Potato-Beetle (Doryphora decem-lineata, Say). — This, the 
well-known Potato-Beetle (Fig. 12) needs no description. Under its normal con- 




Tig. 12. 

ditions, on the slopes of the Rocky Mountains, it fed upon the;wild^potato, Sola- 
num rostratum. Access to the cultivated plant gave it that increase of vitality 
and fecundity which has rendered it so formidable a foe to the gardener. 



47 



Of the SolanacejB, or Nightshade family, to which the potato belongs, there 
are in North America six genera, not counting the South American genus, 
Petunia, now so largely cultivated in flower gardens. They are (1) Solarium, 
Nightshade; (2) Pkysalis, Ground Cherry; (3) Mcandra, Apple of Peru: 
(4) Hyoscyamus, Henbane ; (5) Datura, Thorn-apple ; (6) Hicotiana, Tobacco. 
The first of these includes the potato, the egg plant, and the tomato, all of which 
are eaten with avidity by the beetle. When stinted of its favourite supplies, the 
insect turns to such other members of the family as may grow within its reach. 
The tobacco plant is attacked by it, and I have found it also upon Physalis and 
Datura. 

It would seem that the forced vitality of the species is now diminishing. 
There is a narrowing do\yn apparently, 1st, as to the number of broods, 2ndly as 
to the number of individuals. Professor Claypole, of Akron, Ohio, brought the 
diminution in the former case, under the notice of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, at the Minneapolis meeting. He said : — " This 
insect (the potato beetle) came as usual in middle Pennsylvania in the early sum- 
mer. I was compelled to use poison as in previous years. In the latter portion 
of the summer I observed, and noted at the time in the Canadian Entomologist, 
that there was no second brood, or that it was so small as to pass unnoticed. It 
was my intention to watch in 1883 in order to determine if this second brood 
was again missing ; but to my surprise, in 1883 there was almost no first brood." 

In the neighbourhood of Quebec, late plowing, by disturbing their hiberna- 
cula, has destroyed great numbers of the beetles, and the lingering winter has 
retarded the appearance of the survivors, so that the first brood of the year has 
been both late and comparatively weak in numbers. For the last two seasons I 
have not had occasion to use Paris green on the early potatoes grown in my gar- 
den, but later-planted field crops have called for an application of the drtlg. The 
decrease in the number of perfect beetles appearing in the fall has been very 
marked. 




Fig 13. 



The Three-Lined Potato-Beetle (Lema trilineata, Olivier). — This is a 
buff-coloured beetle, (Fig. 13) having three black stripes on the wing covers. Its 
length is a quarter of an inch. It appeals in June, and attacks 
the potato plants. It lays its yel- 
low eggs in small clusters, and in 
a fortnight the larvae appear (Fig 
14). They are of a dirty yellowish 
grey, and are generally seen with a 
* thick coating of excrementa on 
their backs. This filthy covering 
is believed to serve for a defence 
against their insect enemies, and as a protection 
also from the heat of the sun. In about another 
fortnight the insects bury themselves in the 
ground and form cysts in which to undergo their pupal change. In a fortnight 
more the perfect beetles appear and lay their eggs for a second brood. 

Paris green applied in the usual way is the remedy for these pests. 

The Cucumber Beetle (Diahrotica vittata, Fab.). — The cu jamber ,beetle 
is about two lines in length. It is yellow, and has a black head, and three black 
lines running along the wing-covers. The larvas feed on the roots, and^the perfect 
insects on the tender leaves of the cucumber, melon and squash. 




Fig. 14. 



48 




Fig 15. 



To destroy the leLYvm water the plants with soapsuds, and to check the oper- 
ations of the beetle sprinkle the leaves with hardwood ashes. 

The Striped Flea-Beetle (Raltica striolata, Illiger). — This minute beetle 
(Fig. 15) is black, with a buff stripe on each wing cover. It 
is beautifully formed, highly polished and very lively. It 
hibernates in the imago state, and comes forth early in 
spring to lay its eggs, and to enjoy itself at the gardener's 
expense. Its favourite food plant is the turnip. 

Lime water has been used successfully against its English 
congener. To disappoint the " flea " soiu late. 

The Ash-Coloured Blister-Beetle (Macrohasis y^nicolor, ^Kirby). — In the 
Eastern Townships the Windsor beans and potato vines are often infested with 
an ash-grey beetle of about three-fifths of an inch in length. The ash colour is 
owing to a soft down which rubs oflf leaving the surface black. This beetle is 
one of the Cantharides, and is as efl&cacious for medical purposes as the " Spanish 
Fly." It may be easily shaken into a pan of scalding water, and afterwards dried 
for medical use. 

Butterflies and Moths (Order, Lepidoptera). 

The Cabbage Butterfly (Pie7ns rapce, Linnaeus). — That destructive pest the 
cabbage butterfly (Fig. 16 the male, fig. 17 the fenaale) was first taken in Canada 
by Mr. Wm. Couper of Quebec. This was in 1860. The insect had probably 
been cast upon the shores of the St. Lawrence in the larval or pupal stage, with 
refuse cabbages from the steamships. We are indebted to Mr. Scudder for a full 
and most interesting account of the after progress of the species on this continent. 
From this account it appears that in 1866 it had spread to Cacouna, where it was 
taken by Mr. Saunders, to the Eastern Townships, where I captured it myself. 





Fig. 17. 



and into the State of Maine. In 1867 it reached Montreal. In 1868 'a fresh im- 
portation by way of New York was made. The story runs that a German 
naturalist in that city obtained chrysalides from Europe, and that the imagos 
issued from these during his absence, and escaped through an open window. The 
insects spread in ever widening curves, both from New York and Quebec, till, in 
1871, the two hordes met. In 1876 they had spread over the whole of Western 
Ontario. In 1881 they covered the country from the seaboard to Texas, Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Lake Superior ; and by 1884 they had been met with on the shores 
of Hudson's Bay and at the foot of the Bocky Mountains. 

Pieris rapce may be readily distinguished from the less common native 
white (Pieris oleracea, Harris) by the black spots upon its wings. The female 
«may be constantly seen in the summer months hovering over the cabbages, curv- 
ing its abdomen and attaching its eggs dispersedly upon the plants. The larvae 
are green irrorated with black. They have the habit of lying alongf the ribs of 
the leaves where they are not readily seen. 



49 



Dr. Lintner recommends sprinkling with water heated to 130 Fahr. and up- 
wards (1st An. Rep. p. 59). 

The Cabbage Plusia (Plusia hrassicw, Riley). — This insect has at length 
invaded the Province of Quebec. It has been taken at Metis by Mr. Winn. Its 
numbers will probably increase. The fore wings of the moth are brownish grey, 
and have yellowish, indistinct, transverse lines. In the centre of each fore wing is a 
silvery, horse-shoe-like mark, with a silvery spot beyond it at the lower side. 
The hind wings are yellowish, with smoky hind margins. The male moth is fur- 
nished with conspicuous abdominal side tufts of a golden hue. 

The larva is a half-looper, having only twelve legs. Its head is small and 
flat, and the body is gradually enlarged from it to the anal segment, which appears 
as if abruptly sliced off. In colour the caterpillar is translucent pale green, marked 
with delicate longitudinal white lines, and with white spots. In each of the latter 
is set a short dark hair. 

The pupa is of a pale colour, yellowish or green, and is enclosed in a slight 
cocoon. 

Besides the cabbage, the turnip, lettuce, celery and tomato afford food for 
this pest. 

An application of hot water as recommended in the previous case, is prob- 
ably the best remedy for the assaults of the insect. 

The Cut- Worm Moths. — These are a numerous family, including species be- 
longing to the genera, Agrotis, Mamestra, Hadena, etc. They may be grouped 
as climbing and surface cut-worms. It is with the latter I am for my present 
purpose, more particularly concerned. I shall give a short account of a few repre- 
sentative species of these, and for further particulars would refer the reader to a 
valuable paper written by the late Mr. G. J. Bowles, which may be found in the 
Society's Annual Report for 1879. 

The Devastating Dart-Moth {Hadena devastatrix, Brace) — This moth 
is one and three-fourths inches in expanse of wings. The fore wings are 
dark brownish gray, and have several whitish transverse lines. Near the hind 
margin is a row of arrow-headed black spots pointing towards the base of the wing. 
The hind wings are light brownish grey. The thorax is dark grey like the fore 
wings and the abdomen is of the same colour as the hind wings. 

The caterpillar, (Fig. 18) known as the " Glassy Cut- Worm," has a translucent 

glassy-green body, a Venetian-red head, and a dark- 
brown cervical shield. It has a few scattered spots 
on each segment — each spot being furnished with a 
single hair. The caterpillar hibernates in the soil, 
and, coming out early in the spring, commences its 
destructive work upon the newly-planted cabbages. 
It feeds only at night, and lies hid in the soil, near 
the root of the plant, during the day. 

The Barred-Arches Moth {Hadena arnica, Harris). — This beautiful moth 
expands about two inches. The ground colour of its fore wings is rich Spanish 
brown. Near the hind margin is a broad, wavy, bluish-grey band, and near the 
base of the wing is a narrower and darker wavy band. The reniform stigma (kid- 
ney-shaped spot in the middle of the wing) is large and distinct. The hind wings 
are ash-coloured, clouded on the outer margin. 

The caterpillar which is called the " Yellow-headed Cut-worm," is of a smoky- 
brown colour, and the head, cervical shield, and anal plate are yellow, or chestnut- 
coloured. This creature cuts off the young corn below the surface of the ground. 
4 (EN.) 




50 



The Lance Rustic Moth {Agrotis telifera, Harris). (Ypsilon, Rott). — 
Harris was the first to describe this fine insect, which 
measures an inch and a half in expanse of wings. 
(Fig. 19.) The fore wings are brown, dark along the 
c'osta and through the middle. Near the hind margin 
is a light-brown hand, and at the base of the wing is 
a light-brown patch, shaped like the head of a fish 
with the mouth open. Pointing outAvardly from the 
I'eniform stigma is a black lance-shaped mark. The 
hind wings of the moth are pearly white shaded yig. 19. 

with brown. 

The caterpillar known as the " Greasy Cut-worm," is dull leaden brown^ 
spotted with shiny black. Its dorsal and side lines are yellowish. The creature 
is highly destructive to corn, tobacco, tomatoes, etc., cutting the plants an inch 
above the ground. 

The Clandestine Owlet Moth (Agrotis clandestina, Harris). — In expanse 
of wings this moth measures an inch and three-quarters. It is a very sober- 
coloured moth. The fore wings are dark ashen. In them the orbicular andreni- 
form stigmata are connected by a black line. The hind wings are dirty brownish- 
white, darker towards the hind margin. The fore part of the body is chestnut 
brown. The moth received its name from its retiring habits and attempts at 
concealment. 

The caterpillar (Fig. 20) is called the " W-marked Cut-worm." It is j^ellowish 
grey in colour, lined with yellow, and finely sprinkled with 
dark spots. On each side of the back, upon the abdominal 
segments, is a row of black velvety marks. These marks, 
when viewed from the front, are suggestive of the letter W 
Fig. 20. — hence the common name of the creature. 

Nothing in the way of vegetables seems to come amiss to this cut-worm 
beans, 3'oung corn, cabbage, pumpkins, etc., all are eagerly eaten by it. It has the 
habit of dragging its food under stones or into the ground, that it may feed upon 
it at leisure. 

The methods to be pursued for protecting garden crops from the cut-worms 
appear to me to be these : — Because the caterpillars pass from plant to plant over 
the surface of the earth, and will not ascend a friable mound corn should he 
" planted in the hill." Around each newly-planted cabbage a ring of salt should 
be placed, a few inches from the stem. The larvse will not pass over this, and 
the salt will act as a fertilizer. Whenever a plant is found to be nipped off, the 
cause of the damage should be dug for at the root with a knife or pointed stick, 
and when found, destroyed. Orowing corn, cabbages, cauliflowers, tomatoes, etc.^ 
should be earthed up several times during their period of growth. 

" The Husbandman's Own Insectide." Take plants of " poison poke," 
{Veratrum viride, Aiton) roots, stems and leaves, cut them into manageable lengths, 
make a decoction — a sap-kettle will be useful for the purpose — let the liquor cool, 
and then apply with a sprinkler or water-can. This will be found useful where 
the application of Paris green would be dangerous. 

The gardener has a multitude of insect foes to contend with, but prompt and 
intelligent applications of preventives and remedies are very sure to be rewarded 
with success against them. 





51 



AN OUTBREAK OF THE A]IMY WORM IN MARYLAND. 

BY J. ALSTON MOFFAT. 

It is seldom that we get an account of a remarkable occurrence in any 
department of life from a reliable eye-witness so competent to convey to others 
the facts seen by himself as is to be found in the following extracts taken from 
the report given by Mr. W. H. Ashmead to the United States Government, through 
the Entomological Department at Washington. 




Fig. 21. Fig. 22. 



Although Leucania unipunda (Fig. 21, the moth ; Fig. 22, the caterpillar,) is a 
permanent resident in Ontario, and is frequently found quite abundant, it has 
never been reported as attracting special attention from its destructive effects on 
farm products here ; and yet there does not appear to be any reason why it may 
not at some time do so. 

The army worm has caused great loss in the Maritime Provinces, whilst in 
New York State and Massachusetts, where the climatic conditions must very 
closely resemble our own, it has been at times particularly destructive, whole 
fields being utterly ruined by it. Mr. Scudder made a calculation from what he 
saw, that there must have been at least two million worms to the acre, destrojano- 
an entire field in ten or twelve days. Therefore Mr. Ashmead's vivid description 
of the tremendous power of a combined attack of these despised creatures, should 
arouse those interested to the terrible possibility that may be awaiting them, and 
to guard themselves as much as possible against it, for it is a well known fact 
that slovenly farming is a great source of encouragement to all kinds of pests. 

The army worm had a public reputation long before the moth, which gave 
rise to the destructive hordes, was certainly known to be the parent of all the 
mischief. It was about the year 1861 that the late Prof. Fitch unmistakably 
traced the connection between the two, and since then, by the careful industry 
of others, its life history has been well worked out, but previously many 
unfortunate moths had to bear the blame for that of which they were not guilty ; 
and even yet the justly dreaded army worm is at times reported to have made its 
appearance and causes great consternation in a locality, where, if the nature and 
habits of different insects were better known, it would be readily seen that the 
army worm, at any rate, was not to blame, and that the fright had been caused, 
not so much from the attack, as from a want of a knowledge of how to distino-uish 
between things that differ. If this had been possessed there might have been 
ample evidence to show that there was no cause for alarm, as it was not in the 
nature of that particular form to do any injury. 

On one occasion I had an opportunity of witnessing an occurrence which 
forcibly illustrates this very condition of things. I had gone on a visit to the 
country about the end of wheat harvest, when a hot and dry spell was prevailino- 
and all vegetation was, more or less, exhibiting the effects of it, by a rusty tinge 



52 



to the green. Amongst the first things that I heard of was that the whole locality 
was overrun by the army worm, that they had eaten up every green thing and 
were now devouring the Canada thistles for want of something better, and what- 
ever was to become of the crops next year they did not know. On the first 
opportunity I made personal observation — sure enough the thistles gave ample 
evidence that they had been greviously ill-used, many of them with every leaf 
gone and nothing but the bare stem left, and caterpillars everywhere. In one 
locality where the road allowance ran between two farms with snake fences on 
each side, there was, on the one hand, an old pasture field, very brown and deso- 
late to look at, on the other was a summer fallow, which had in places a luxuriant 
growth of Canada thistles, and I saw the worms crossing the road, in single and 
double file, in colums and squares, platoons, companies and battalions of them, and 
a toilsome march the}^ had of it, especially when crossing the road-bed, which 
was deep with hot dust, leaving the dried up pasture field and all making direct 
for the fallow, apparently with a full knowledge of the fact that there was food 
to be got when they reached it ; and I observed that the thistles in the fallow 
were being visibly reduced day by day. But it turned out that this all devour- 
ing host which had been causing such consternation in that locality, was composed 
entirely of the larvae of Pyrameis cardui, or the thistle butterfly ; and no doubt 
but they had rigidly confined themselves all the time to their own natural and 
proper diet. In due time they disappeared and nothing was heard of them 
afterwards. 



The following is Mr. Ashmead's account of the outbreak of the army worm 
above referred to : 

In accordance with Professor Eiley's instructions, on May 31, accompanied 
by Mr. Albert I. Hayward, of the Maryland Agricultural College, I started for 
Salisbury, Wicomico County, and Princess Anne, Somerset County. Md., to make 
such observations on the army worm (Leucania unipuncta), then depredating in 
the vicinity of these places, as the limited time at our disposal should permit. 

During our journey we ascertained, in conversation, that the worms were 
most numerous in the immediate vicinity of Princess Anne, and we took the most 
direct route for that place. 

As we approached our destination we began to see the efiects of the worms' 
work ; just before entering the town we passed by a large field of corn, owned 
by Mr. H. H. Deshields, containing about twelve acres, that had been devastated 
by them, and only a few green plants could be detected here and there in the 
field. 

This field was in marked contrast with another corn-field adjacent, which 
had been saved from attacks by ditching, as recommended in the third report of 
the U. S. Entomological Commission. Another thing observed was that this field 
was flanked behind with a wood that evidently prevented their ingress that way, 
whereas the former was contiguous to grass and wheat fields, in which the worms 
are said to originate. 

Just before entering the town we passed another ten-acre corn-field, owned 
by Mr. John L. Lormer, that but a short time previously presented a most pro- 
mising appearance, but which to-day is completely " cleaned out " by the worms. 
It may be worthy of record, as the theory has been advanced that insects originate 
in just such places, that in an adjoining field were three old hay-stacks. Contrary 
to our expectations we found the reports of their numbers not at all exaggerated, 
and the damage done is even worse than we anticipated — the wheat, corn, barley 
and timothy of many of the farmers being totally ruined by them. 



53 



One of the most interesting places for observation we visited was that of 
Wm. J. Porter, a practical and energetic farmer, who, although he has fought the 
worms most vigorously, has suffered severely from their attacks. B}^ means of 
ditching and by burning straw, he has been able to save part of his crops, but 
several of his fields of corn, timothy and wheat, were already ruined. He 
reported the worms much less numerous than they had been, but we saw many 
thousands in his fields. 

During our rambles Mr. Porter took us to one of the ditches he had dug to 
keep the worms out of a large corn-field. In this ditch he had sunk every two 
or three j^ards apart, deeper pits, where we found the worms two and three inches 
deep, and the rest of the ditch was black with the dead and living worms. From 
the dead a fearful stench arose in such strength as to attract the buzzards, which, 
as we viewed the scene, were proudly sailing overhead. 

Mr. Porter informed us that the Avorms always originated in the wheat and 
old grass-fields, and during the morning hid themselves from observation, never 
appearing in numbers until after 3 o'clock p.m., which accorded with our own 
observations and with those of the other farmers visited. 

They ate up the timothy and corn clean, and after devouring the blades 
of the wheat congregated, three or four together, on the heads ; after devouring 
several of the lower grains they ate the husks and nipped off the upper portion 
of the kernel of the rest, thus almost entirely destroying it. If the grain is well 
advanced and somewhat hard it escapes destruction ; but as most of the wheat 
visited was still in the milk the destruction was great, and not less than 75 per 
cent, of the crop had been already destroyed. 

Although several parasites are known to prey upon the worms, and we kept 
a sharp lookout for such, none were seen except a few cocoons of an Apanteles 
which were discovered, toofether with the worms, under old trash and lo^^s in a 
wheat-field. A few were gathered and forwarded to the Department, some of 
which have since hatched, and proved to be Apanteles militaris, Walsh. 

On a neighboring farm, owned by Mr. Z. Rouch, almost as much damage had 
been done by the army worm as -on the former place. A large corn-field and a 
field of timothy were totally ruined. A wheat-field, farther advanced than that 
of Mr. Porter's, was less seriously affected, although it did not escape entirely, the 
blades of the wheat and the young timothy being entirely eaten up by them. 

It was on this place that we saw the effects of the worms on barley. Quite 
a large field already in head was completely ruined. 

In the afternoon we visited probably the largest farm in the county, that of 
the Hon. D. N. Dennis, comprising 500 acres or more. 

No better place existed for the proper study of the pest, as the worms were 
swarming in all the fields by the millions, and we had hit upon the proper time 
of day to see them most advantageously, 4 o'clock p.m. The ground was literally 
black with the crawling worms. Mr. Dennis had made no special efforts to 
destroy them, although, like some of his neighbours, he had surrounded some of 
his fields with ditches in an attempt to keep them out of adjoining fields. I 
believe it would have been quite practicable to have destroyed many thousands 
with poisonous washes, or, as Mr. Potter did, by burning straw in the ditches, as 
the bottom of the ditches were black with worms. 

This farm is divided by a central lane, on either side of Avhich are fields of 
wheat, corn, grass, oats, etc., and in passing through this lane we found the worms 
quite plentiful, crawling almost invariably in the direction of the prevailing- 
wind. 



54 



One of the first fields we passed was an immense wheat-field already in the 
head, and the worms could be plainly discernible on the ground all through it 
and on the stalks and heads. The worms having already devoured the young 
timothy and other tender plants usually found growing there, the blades of the 
wheat, the husks, and a goodly portion of the kernels, evidently could not find 
sufficient food and were now migrating to pastures new, the sides of the field 
being black with moving hosts seeking more nutritious food. 

These, as well as all the others observed, were moving in a south-westerly 
direction, the direction of the prevailing wind. They were apparently in all 
stages of growth, from little fellows not more than a quarter of an inch long to 
the fully matured larvae, and all got over the ground and every obstacle in their 
w£Ly with the most surprising rapidity. The fences, posts, and other obstacles in 
their way were no obstruction to their migratory instinct, or their search for 
food. The fence rails and posts were often covered with crawling worms, some- 
times not less than a dozen worms being found on the top of a single tall post, 
while others were seen going up on one side as others were going down the 
opposite. Some specimens were even found under the loose bark on the posts 
and rails, where they had probably crept for shelter. One specimen thus found 
was in the jaws of a large hairy spider, Salticus sp. 

Adjacent to this wheat-field was a large field of timothy, containing 17 acres, 
the blades of which had been cut oft* by the worms as clean as cattle could have 
done. Mr. Jones, the overseer, informed me this field would have harvested not 
less than three tons of hay to the acre, but now it would not pay for the cutting. 

At one side of this field, the side next the wheat, the worms had congregated 
in countless numbers, every square foot having not less than 80 to 50 worms. 
The worms were now coming out of this field and going into the adjoining wheat- 
field and crossing the lane into the opposite fields in great numbers, and it was 
here that we observed a flock of the common English sparrows and a few robins 
picking out the smaller worms and feeding on them. Mr. Jones informed us the 
English sparrows had been thus busily engaged all the past week, and it gives us 
pleasure to record here this fact in favor of the despised bird. 

Some distance off from this field was another one of wheat, containing prob- 
ably 20 acres, in which the worms were even more numerous, and they had 
already sufficiently injured it to render the crop unprofitable to harvest. A deep, 
broad ditch had been dug along one side, and it was now, about 5 o'clock p.m., 
black with worms. It seemed to us a pity that these worms were not killed, as 
many of them were able to crawl up the sides and escape into adjoining fields. 

Facing this field was a large corn-field of probably 75 acres, of which 50 
acres had already been destroyed, and there was but a slight chance that any of 
the corn still left would escape, although by ditching an effort was being made to 
save it. Of the 50 acres destroyed 30 acres had already been replanted, and in 
the newly plowed portion the worms were seen moving about in all directions, 
having just entered it from the adjoining wheat; it is probable that most of these 
will die of starvation or from the eflfects of the hot sun in the middle of the day. 



55 



TORTOISE BEETLES. 

BY F. B. CAULFIELD, MONTREAL. 

The tortoise beetles as they are called, from their resemblance in shape to a 
turtle or tortoise, belong to the great family of leaf-eating coleoptera, the Chry- 
somelidcB, but were formerly classed as a distinct family, the Cassidadce, a term 
signifying a helmet, the fore part of the thorax generally projecting over the 
head like the front of a helmet. In the members of this family the body is 
generally of a broad, oval form, flattened beneath, convex above. The antennae 
are short and thickened at the tip, presenting somewhat the appearance of a club. 
The head is small and generally hidden beneath the overlapping edge of the 
thorax, and the legs are very short, not extending much beyond the margin of 
the wing covers, so that the resemblance to a tortoise is really striking. The 
larvae of many kinds of insects are protected from the burning sunshine and the 
attacks of their enemies by a coat of hair or prickly spines, or else conceal them- 
selves beneath leaves or in crevices during the hotter parts of the day, but the 
insects in question adopt an entirely different plan, and shelter themselves beneath 
umbrellas, covered, not with silk or cotton, but with a mass of their own excre- 
ment. 

In most of these creatures the body resembles the perfect insect in shape, 
being broad and flattened, but they diflfer in having a row of spines on each side 
and in being provided with a tail, and a very remarkable tail at that. This 
instrument resembles in form a fork, with a rather thick, rounded handle, from 
which project two long prongs. This forked tail is curved over the creature's 
back, and upon the prongs and lateral spines the excrement is heaped until a mass 
almost as large as the creature's body is accumulated. Our Canadian species of 
tortoise beetles belong to three genera — Physonota, Goptocycla and G/ielymorpha. 
Physonota helicLnthi, Eand, lives on the wild sunflower (Relianthus), and soon 
after these have leafed out in spring, such of the beetles as have survived the 
winter gather upon them. They are now of a bright, golden-green colour, and are 
exceedingly beautiful, gleaming and flashing like gsms in the sunshine. Soon 
after this the eggs are deposited in an irregular cluster, covered with a gummy 
exudation which hardens on exposure bo the air. This cluster is placed on the 
upper surface of the leaf, and near the tip just where it tapers to a point. 

The larvae are oblong-oval in shape, and when full grown measure nearly an 
inch in length. The general colour is dark olive green, and on the back are three 
shert yellow stripes, that in the centre being a little the longest. On each side 
is a row of ten simple spines. When undisturbed these slug-like larvae keep the 
tail curved over the back, and both body and tail are constantly wet with semi- 
fluid excreta, so that the form of the creature can hardly be seen. From the 
middle of July to the end of August these larvae change to chrysalids, and by the 
end of the latter month and during September the beetles emerge, and may be 
found resting quietly on the leaves of their food plant. They are now dressed in 
a coat of sober black, irregularly spotted with creamy white, very pretty little 
fellows in a neat evening dress, but very different to the magnificent marriage 
garment worn by their parents amidst the fresh green leaves and glowing sunshine 
of the early summer. 

The beetles appear to eat very little, but the larvae are hungry creatures, 
eating numerous holes in the leaves, and when abundant almost stripping the 
plants. 



56 



When 3^oung the larva? are of social habits, and huddle closely together, the 
heads all in the centre, surrounded by a ring of curled up tails, presenting a most 
curious appearance. When nearly full grown they separate and scatter over the 
plants, each one shifting for himself. The perfect insect measures about five- 
eighths of an inch in length. 

The species belonging to the genus Coptocycla are smaller than Physonota, 
and differ somewhat in some of their habits. The eggs are deposited singly on 
the leaves, and when the larvaB moult, the cast skins are slipped into the forked 
part of the tail, whereas Jhe larvse of Pysonoia leave their discarded garments 
sticking to the leaves. 

The golden tortoise beetle, Coptocycla aurichalcea, Fab. is very common on 
the Morning Glory, and often disfigures and injures it by eating holes in the 
leaves. They also attack the sweet potato. Prof. Riley states that they are often 
sufficiently numerous to destroy whole fields of this esculent, and they are especi- 
ally severe on the plants when freshly transplanted from the hotbed. When 
freshly emerged from chrysalis the beetles are of a dull orange color, but in a few 
days this tint changes to bright gold color, when they present a most beautiful 
appearance as they glisten in the sunshine. The larva resembles the beetle in 
general shape, being broad and flattened, but on each side there is a row of sixteen 
barbed spines; it is of a dark brown colour, with a pale shade upon the back. 
Prof. Riley says that it carries its falcifork directly over its back, and the excre- 
ment is arranged in a more or less regular trilobed pattern. 

The mottled tortoise beetle, Coptocycla guttata, Oliv., is also common on, and 
injurious to, the morning glory and sweet potato. It varies considerably in 
colour, some specimens being very dark — almost black, others are mottled with 
black and gold, and occasionally examples are found altogether of the latter colour. 
The larva is green, bluish on the back. Prof. Riley states that it carries its dung 
in irregular broad masses, often branching out into long shreds and ramificatioDs. 

Another species, the clubbed tortoise beetle, Coptocycla clavata, Oliv. is found 
on the true, potato. It is given in the Society's list of Canadian beetles, but so 
far as known to me, has not been found in the Province of Quebec. 

The "shell" of this species is thin and semitransparent, with patches of 
darker color, some of which extend to the margin of the wing-covers. I have 
seen no description of the larva. 

Chelymorpha argus, Licht., is of a dull, yellowish -red colour, ornamented with 
nineteen small black spots, six on the thorax and thirteen on the wing-covers. 
It measures about three-quarters of an inch in length. Packard states that " the 
larva dififers from that of Coptocycla aurichalcea, not only in its greater size, but 
the body is thicker and narrower, the head is freer from the thorax, and the 
spines are simple, not spinulated. The body is yellow and less protected by the 
cast skin. When about to transform the larva attaches itself to the leaf by a 
silken thread, a few segments from the end where the end of the body of the 
future pupa is situated. It is .45 of an inch long. The pupa is broad and 
flattened, dark and spotted with yellow, and covered with a whitish powder, 
causinor the yellow portions to appear more prominently ; along each side of the 
abdomen is a row of five spines, and there are four spines on the anterior edge of 
the prothorax ; it is .40 of an inch in length." He further states that he has 
found it in all its stages on the silk-weed late in July and early in August, and 
In one instance in Salem it occurred in abundance on the leaves of the raspberry 

I have myself found it in all stages on the morning glory at Montreal some 
years ago, but have not met with it recently. 



57 



Tortoise beetles may be destroyed with Paris green, but as they often liide 
beneath the leaves, they are not so easily killed as the Colorado potato beetle. 
The plants should be closely watched when set out in spring, as at this time the 
beetles are comparatively few iu number, and could be killed before the eggs are 
deposited, which would save much future trouble and expense. " An ounce of 
prevention is worth a pound of cure." 

Tortoise beetles appear to be remarkably free from parasites. I have bred 
numbers of Physonota helianthi, but only raised one parasite, a small dipterous fly. 



QUEBEC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS PLUSIA. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Following are the characteristics of the genus Plusia : — 

Imago, antennae setaceous, thorax and abdomen crested, fore-wings acute, 
curved on the hind margin, glossy, and often ornamented with metallic markings. 

Larva, loops somewhat in walking, having twelve legs only ; attenuated 
anteriorly ; feeds exposed on low plants. 

Pupa, inclosed in a slight cocoon. 

Insects belonging to the genus Plusia may be readily distinguished by the con- 
spicuous crest which they bear on the shoulders, the tufted abdomen, and the bill- 
hook shaped curve of the inner margin of the fore-wings. These are more or less 
striking in them all. Some of the species are very abundant, individuals of them 
may be seen in our gardens, even in the hot sunshine, hovering over the blossoms 
or passing from plant to plant with easy rapid motions. 

The largest, and I think the most beautiful of our Quebec species is 

P. halluca (Gey.) Fig. 23, which is one and 
three-fourths inches in expanse of wings. 
The splendid bronze-green of its wings, 
shining with the richest gloss of satin, will 
make it known to the veriest tyro in 
Entomology. 

P. Putnami (Grote) may also be 
readily distinguished by its burnt-sienna 
coloured fore-wings with their golden apical 
streak, and theii two central golden spots, 
sometimes united. 

P. thyatiroides (Guen.) is very rare in the Province of Quebec. To those 
who are fortunate enough to meet with it, it may at once be known by the 
patches at the base and inner angles of its fore-wings, which are of a delicate 
pink, resembling in colour those on the wings of the English " peach blossom 
moth " (Thyatira batis). It is to these that the insect owes its name. The only 
specimen I have was taken at Cowansville in the Eastern Townships. 

P. mortuorum ( Guen.) also may be readily known. Its fore-wings are dark 
brown approaching to black. They aie embellished with silvery lines and washes 
near the hind margin. Extending from the base to the centre of the wing are 
conspicuous plume-like silvery-white markings. This is one of the smallest 
species in the genus, expanding about one inch and a quarter. 

The fore- wings of P. ampla (Walk.) are ash-brown with a rosy tinge. 
Extending from the inner margin to the middle of the wing is a well-defined 
dark-brown velvety patch, the inner side of which has a deep curve and is finely 
outlined with gold colour. 




58 




Fig. 24. 



In P. viridi^ignata (Grote) the fore-wings are dark rosy-grey with numerous 
brown zig-zag lines. In the centre of the wing is an obscure bronzy-green figure, 
resembling a 3 or an 8 laid on its back. 

One of the finest insects in the genus is P. bimaculata (Steiph.). In expanse 
of wings it measures an inch and three-eighths. Its fore-wings are rich rosy-brown 
variegated with dark markings and with a patch of chestnut red in the centre. 
In this patch are two golden spots, the upper somewhat resembling the letter v. 
I have noticed that the Eastern Township's specimens of this moth are larger and 
brighter than the more northern specimens. 

P. precationis (Guen.) is one of the most common species we have. Its 
fore-wings are of a rich purple brown with a golden sheen. They have a few 
pale wavy streaks, and a distinct silvery y in the middle of each. 

In P. simplex (Guen.) Fig. 24 the fore-wing is of a dark ash-grey. It has a 
brown apical dash, and a brown shade on the inner 
margin. This shade is separated from the ash-grey 
base and basal portion of the costa, by a fine white 
line, which joins the inner arm of the silvery y-like 
central mark. 

In P. falcif era (Kirby) the arms of the y are long 
and attenuated, and the tail lacks the terminal knob 
that is characteristic of Precationis and Simplex. 
Falcif era has rosy-brown fore-wings strikingly marked 
with curved and dentated rosy-white lines, having 
dark brown finer lines imposed. I captured several specimens of this insect at 
Como, P. Que. They were hovering over flowers on a sunny afternoon. 

P. hrassicce (Riley, Xi Hubn) has been taken at Metis, P. Que., by Mr. 

Winn. This moth Fig. 25 expands 
about one and a half inches. It has 
dark grejnsh-brown fore-wings, with 
irregular, pale yellow cross lines, and 
in the centre a silvery u or horse-shoe 
like mark followed by an oval silvery 
dot. The underwings are yellowish 
clouded towards the outer edge. 

Of P. mappa (G. & R.) only a 
few specimens have been taken in the 
Province of Quebec. The insect may 
be known by the numerous dark brown 
wa\'y lines upon its tawny fore-wings. 
In the centre of each of these wings is 
a silvery u, or horse-shoe-like mark, 
followed by a dot or annulet. 

P. U-aureum (Boisd.) is a small 
species expanding one and one-fourth 
inches. Its fore-wings are dark brown, and bear in the centre aVolden or .silvery 
mark resembling a squat capital iV". On the fore- wings also are several irregular 
transverse golden or silvery lines. 

Besides Balluca we have two species that have no metallic spots in the 
Biiddle of the fore-wing, P. cerea (Hubner), and P. cereoides (Grote). In the former 
the wings are c?a7'Z; brassy-brown and in the latter, pale brassy-brown. Both 
have darker transverse markings, ^reoides has also, near the hind margin, a pale 
brassy transverse band. 




59 



Table of Quebec Species of the Genus Plusia. 

I. — Having white or metallic markings in the middle of the fore-wings. 

A. Having y-like markings in the middle of the fore- wings. 

a. Having two golden marks as if the tail were cut off from the y. 

PuTNAMi, which has a golden apical streak. 
BiMACULATA, which has a brown apical streak. 

b. Having the y complete. 

1. Tarsi of front legs banded brown and white. 

Falcifera, which has no knob at the end of the y. 
Precationis, which has the tail of the y knobbed. 

2. Tarsi of the front legs plain. 

Simplex. 

B. Having markings of other forms in the middle of the fore- wings. 

a. Like K U-Aureum. 

b. Undulating, like a small snake. Ampla. 

c. Like the figure 3 lying on its back. ViRlDisiGNATA. 

d. Plume-like. Mortuorum. 

e. Like a small v followed by a dot or annulet. 

1. Having pink spots on the wings. Thyatiroides. 

2. Having tawny wings. Mappa. 

3. Having greyish-brown wings. Brassic^. 

IL — Having no metallic markings in the middle of the fore-wings. 

A. Having the wings glossy-green. Balluca. 

B. Having the wings glossy -brown. 

CL Dark brown, ^rea. 

6. Light-brown. ^.REoiDES. 



ORIGIN AND PERPETUATION OF ARCTIC FORMS. 

BY J. ALSTON MOFFAT. 

The subject of Arctic Forms is one of special interest in biology, and the 
frequent reference to it in natural history literature, keeps it constantly before 
the reader, and has made the theories concerning the origin and preservation of 
such forms well known, whilst to us as entomologists, it is of the very first im- 
portance in our etiorts to obtain correct knowledge concerning the geographical 
distribution of insects. Grant Allen says . — 

"On or near the summit of Mount Washington, a small community of butter- 
flies belonging to an old glacial and Arctic species still lingers over a small area, 
where it has held its own for eighty thousand years that have elapsed since the 
termination of the great ice age. This same butterfly is found in two other 
localities on this continent ; Long's Peak, Colorado, is eighteen hundred miles 
distant; Hopedale, Labrador, is probably a thousand miles away ; in the intervening 
districts there are no insects of the same species. Hence we must conclude, that 
a few butterflies left behind in the retreating main-guard of their race, on that 
one New Hampshire peak, have gone on for thousands and thousands of years, 
producing eggs, and growing from caterpillars into mature insects, without once 
affecting a cross with their congeners." 



60 



I learn from the writings of Mr. W. H. Edwards, that the name of that 
butterfly is Chionobas Semidea (Say.) The description given by Mr. Scudder of its 
terrible struggle for existence, tends to arouse one's interest in it, and draws out 
one's sympathy for it, as we contemplate the dreary and joyless life it is doomed 
to lead in its inclement home, so opposite to what is considered to be the typical 
life of a butterfly. Grant Allen's conclusion is in perfect harmony with the 
theories prevailing on this subject, but there is another view that can be taken of 
it, which appears to me to be more in harmony with nature and observation, 
although it may spoil the romance, and give less play to the imagination ; and 
that is the one contained in the well-known principle of the power of environment 
to modify the external appearance of living forms, and their ability to accommo- 
date themselves to altered conditions. 

To illustrate the principle that I wish to apply in this case, I shall draw upon 
Mr. Edwards's article on " Pieris Bryonise and its derivative forms," to be found in 
Papilio, for June, 1881. He says : 

" The species, of which Bryonige is one of the forms, is known as Napi* 
having in Europe three manifestations, Bryonias, Napi, and Napaese ; the last of 
these was until recently regarded as a distinct species." Then quoting Dr. 
Weisman who says of Bryonise : " This is to a certain extent the potential winter 
form of Napi. This type Bryonise, in polar regions is the only form of 
Napi. Bryonia produces but one generation a year, and must, then, 
according to my theory, be regarded as the parent form of Napi." He then states 
that in the Alps and Jura, Napi swarms everywhere, and crossing takes place, 
which causes variability in Bryouise, but in Lapland Napi is never met with ; so 
Bryoniae preserves its constancy, and concludes thus : " Pieris Bryoniae should be 
elevated to the rank of a species, and ordinary winter and summer forms should 
be designated varieties Napi andNapaeae." Then Mr. Edwards, after a description 
of the markings of the various forms, says, " There are therefore the three forms 
under which the species manifests itself in Europe, Bryoniae, Napi, Napaeae ; of 
which Bryoniae may be considered the present form." Now to get myself into 
harmony with nature, I have to reverse this order. We all know that 
butterflies are lovers of the sun ; and that they are most numerous in kinds and 
examples in warm countries where they flourish most luxuriantly, the conditions 
being more congenial to them. Therefore the natural inference is, that butter- 
flies would first appear on this scene of life, in localities that were most favourable 
to them, and spread from these into tho^e that were less so. We are all familiar 
with the restlessness of butterflies, and with what eagerness they will investi- 
gate every spot, seemingly with a determination to establish themselves there if 
possible ; they succeed if the conditions are at all favourable, and some of them 
succeed even where the conditions are most unlikely. Now as Bryoniae is a darker 
form than Napi, and* Napaeae being lighter still, and taking the result of Mr. 
Edwards's experiments in this direction as a clue to some of nature's methods in 
this matter, which goes to show that cold has the eflect of darkening the colour 
of some kinds, I infer that Napaeae was the first to appear and to spread into a 
localit}' with a cold winter. This acting on the chrysalides, Napi appears as the 
spring form, and Napaeae as the summer one. As the distribution goes on it 
reaches a yet colder climate, where Napaeae disappears and Bryoniae is the spring 
form, with Napi as the summer one. Pushing yet onward it gets into a locality 
where the season is too short for two broods, when the single brooded Arctic and 
Alpine Bryoniae is alone to be found, and consequently constant, and there does 
not seem to be the slightest reason to doubt, that if every Bryoniae was swept 
out of Europe in one season, their place would soon be filled from the warmer 



61 



plains below, and that they would be just as true Bryoniae as those of the present 
— the result of the influence of climate on an impressionable organism, and the 
power of that organism to accommodate itself to altered conditions. 

Now, then, let us return to our poor old friend Semidea, who has been having 
such a weary time of it on top of Mount Washington, for the last eighty thousand 
years. I do not know the form of Chionobas that flies on the plains of New 
Hampshire. I am dealing with one of the laws of nature that controls life, a far 
more reliable guide to correct conclusions, than the changeable external appear- 
ance of insects. But whatever they may be like, or by whatever name they may 
be called, I am quite confident, that upon investigation one of them will be 
found to stand in the same relation to Semidea that Napi does to Bryoniae, and 
will be found capable of pushing its way up Mount Washington and to be modi- 
fied by the changed conditions, and by the time it has established itself on the 
top it has become true Semidea; so that if at any time Semidea had been obliterated 
from Mount Washington by the severity of the conditions, and it would seem 
little short of a miracle if it never has been, its place could yet be filled from 
below. 

Then there is Semidea in the Mountains of Colorado. The Chionobas of the 
Colorado plains, will undoubtedly be diflerent-looking from those of New Hamp- 
shire and discerned by bearing diflerent names, and from one of them the Semideas 
have come which are found on the mountains ; the same principle governing 
one as the other. We turn to Labrador and the same principle is at work there, 
only the conditions for the production of Semidea are obtained without the neces- 
sity for the elevation. So that from Labrador within the Arctic circle, to Long's 
Peak, Colorado, an unbroken chain of that species extends across the 2,800 miles 
that lie between, every link of which may difier somewhat from the one next 
to it, according to the conditions in which it lives, and be entitled to a distin- 
guishing name, yet all united by the laws of consanguinity. At these three points, 
Labrador, Mount Washington and Long's Peak, Colorado, the conditions being the 
same, like results are produced and Semidea is the natural outcome. And according 
to Mr, Edwards, when specimens are brought from these widely separated locali- 
ties and compared, they are not known to difler by a scale or a hair. I see that 
Mr. Scudder does not consider the Labrador form quite the same as the others, 
if so it would indicate that the conditions are not quite identical. 

Mr. Edwards inform us that the Satyrinae are a very numerous family, with 
many genera, these having numerous species, which I take as an indication that 
they are sensitive to external influences and readily modified thereby, and pro- 
bably a full series might exhibit the gradations to be slight. 

This, then, is the view I take of the way in which Arctic forms have been 
originated and perpetuated, and the principle at work in producing them is 
that which has been so carefully elaborated with such a wealth of illustration 
and knowledge of facts by Wallace in his Island Life ; only he calls the forms 
produced by changed conditions " species " instead of varieties of a species, a 
mode of using the terra that is ever liable to lead to confusion and misun- 
derstanding. 



62 



FULLER'S ROSE-BEETLE.— (^ra,77ii^zt8 FulUri, Horn). 

BY JAMES FLETCHER, OTTAWA. 

From time to time complaints come to us of injuries done to greenhouse 
plants by some insect which gives abundant evidence of its presence, by the 
nibbled state of the leaves ; but which is seldom detected. When such com- 
plaints are received, it is suggested that a light be taken into the greenhouse and 
search made at night. In most instances the culprit is found to be a small brown 
snout-beetle, shown at Fig. 28. This is known as Fuller's Rose-Beetle. There is 
no doubt that this insect is far commoner than is generally supposed. Its habit 
of feeding at night and hiding during the day time, added to the protection 
afforded it by its colour, saves it from detection until it attracts notice by its ex- 
cessive numbers. 

This is a comparatively new enem}^ having onh' been described in 1876, 
when Dr. Horn named it after Mr. A. S. Fuller, who first brought it to his 
notice. It had however, been sent to Dr. J. A. Lintner, State Entomologist of 
New York, two years previous to that date. 

A good deal has been written in different journals and reports upon the best 
way tosovercome this pest ; but it still keeps turning up in new localities every 
year, and is now reported as a greenhouse pest from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
coast. 

Accounts of its life-history and habits are given in the Annual Report of the 
United States Entomologist for 1878, and Dr. Lintner's report for 1885. From 
these accounts we find that this Insect injures greenhouse j)lants of manj^ kinds; 
but its favourite food is undoubtedly the rose, and after this perhaps various 
kinds of lilies. The injury done hy the mature beetle is how- 
ever slight, compared with that of the larva (Fig. 26), which 
is a thick white legless grub, when full grown J of an inch 
in length, the body curved, wrinkled above and flattened be- 
low, covered with short tawny bristles. Head yellow with 
dark, black-tipped, sharp mandibles, with which it consumes 
Fig. 26. the young rootlets of various greenhouse plants, and by the 
destruction of these fibres with which the plant takes its 
food, soon destroys the vitality of the plant. Prof. Riley says :— (Ann. 
Rep., 1878, p. 256). "The most serious injury is done by the larvae, which feed 
principally upon the more tender rootlets and thus attack the plant in its most 
essential parts. I have had a quite healthy rosebush totally destroyed in three 
weeks' time, by about three dozen of the larvae, wdiich were placed in the pot con- 
taining it." Wli en plants are attacked at the root by larvaB they have generally 
a characteristic appearance. The new wood is weak and spindly, the colour is 
unhealthy and very few flowers are produced. When this is the case they seldom 
recover. I have seen plants of which every one of the young rootlets were 
destro3^ed, and which threw out new roots close to the surface ; but these never 
did much good, and florists tell me that it pays better to throw away such plants 
and replace them with young, vigorous bushes. There is frequently much care- 
lessness amongst florists in not appreciating the serious nature of an introduction 
of this pest into their premises, and it is not at all uncommon to see plants 
destroyed by the larvae, simply pulled out and other health}^ plants set in the 
same soil. This of course is a great mistake, and is a practice which should never 
be followed. When roses are grown under glass in the usual way, viz.: — in beds, 
if the soil is found to be infested by the larvae of this insect, it must all be 




G3 



removed and fresh soil put in its place. There are several instances on record of 
rose-growers having given up the cultivation of this queen of all flowers, on 
account of the attacks of this insect ; but this is not necessary, if they will learn 
something of its life-history and applj- remedies accordingly. Prof. Riley has 
worked out the life-history and finds that the eggs are laid in flattened batches of 
from 10 to 60, the individual eggs being smooth yellow and ovoid and about one 
millimetre in length. They are laid by the female at the base of the plant just 
above the ground, and are generally pushed between the loose bark and the stem^ 
or are laid between the earth and the main stem, just at the surface of the ground. 
They are so firmly glued together and to the place where they are deposited that 
they can only be detached with difficulty. After about a month the eggs hatch 
and the active little larvse at once burrow down into the ground and begin their 
work of destruction. When full grown they turn to pupse, Fig. 27, from which 
the mature beetles emerge in about three weeks. The perfect 
beetle, Fig. 28, is a brown weevil, a little more than I of an inch in 
length, with a short thick snout and long slender antennae or feelers, 
bent abruptly in the middle. The wing-cases are indistinctly striate, 
and bear rows of large punctures and minute hairs. A whitish Fig. 27. 
stripe runs along the sides of the thorax and half way down the sides where 
it terminates as an oblique white dash, reaching to the middle of each wing-case. 
Prof. Riley says : " The parent beetles, like most other snout beetles, live for a 
considerable time, as I have kept them in confinement for 
nearly three months. They are nocturnal in habit, being quite 
active and feeding only after dusk. They shun the light daring 
day-time and hide under the leaves or cling tightly to the 
Fig. 28. branches or in some fork near the base of the plant, always in 
such position as not easily to be observed. They drop to the ground when 
disturbed, draw up their legs and * play possum,' remaining motionless for some 
time and looking very much like a small lump of dry earth, the colour adding 
greatly to the resemblance. This habit of simulating death upon disturbance is 
common to many other insects of this family. They feed upon the leaves, but do 
more injury by severing them than by the amount of foliage consumed." 

" The beetle seems to be purely American, and the genus Aramigus was in fact 
erected for it and another species (A. tesselatus), of about the same size, but of a 
silvery white colour, with faint green hue, which I have found in Kansas upon 
the well-known 'resin weed.' The beetle belongs to the same family, and is 
pretty closely allied to a well-known European beetle, Otiorhynclms sulcatus, 
Fab., which is larger and darker in colour, and is also very injurious to green- 
house plants, as well as to some grown out of doors. This species also occurs in 
this countr}^" The last-named beetle has been taken by Mr. Harrington at 
Sydney, Cape Breton, but has never yet been reported as an injurious insect in 
Canada. 

Remedies. — Probably the most satisfactory remedies for this pest are those 
v/hich are directed towards the destruction of the mature beetles. As stated 
above these are very retentive of life. They can, however, certainly be con- 
quered by constant watchfulness and by keeping the plants in the house where 
they occur frequently sprayed all the time the perfect beetles occur with weak 
arsenical mixtures. Paris green of the strength of 1 lb. to 300 gallons of water 
is strong enough to destroy the beetles and will not injure the plants if kept well 
mixed all the time it is being used. Mr. Alderman Scrim, of Ottawa, an exten- 
sive grower of roses and other plants for winter cut-flowers was very successful 
in trapping the beetles by means of the small bamboo canes commonly used by 
florists for supporting potted plants in greenhouses. These were cut so that there 





64 



Was an open joint about three inches in length at the top. Into this chamber so 
^formed the beetles would crawl to hide during the day, and were easily and 
^quickly crushed by pushing a small rod down the cane every morning without 
■^removing the cane. In this way Mr. Scrim destroyed large numbers at a time 
"oi the year when it was inconvenient to renew all the soil in his rose-houses. 
Prof. Eiley quotes in his 1878 report from an account written by the late Mr. 
Peter Henderson, of New York, of tli^ work of this beetle. After stating his 
belief that the failure of many to grow roses is due to the unknown presence of 
the larvje at the roots, he says as follows : " Mr. John May, the gardener in charge 
^Mr. Slaughter's rose-growing establishment at Madison, New Jersey, which is 
probably the largest in the vicinity of New York, has given great attention to 
the rose bug, his roses for four or five years being much injured by it ; but by 
persistent efforts in destroying the perfect insect, he has now got entirely clear 
of it." 

Experiments to destroy the larvss and pupae in the ground by means of bisul- 
phide of carbon were unsuccessful. 

Prof. Riley having discovered the habits of the insect as to the deposition of 
its eggs suggested the value of placing traps, composed of rags, tape or paper tied 
round the stems of the plants or round short sticks placed close to the plants. In 
these the females would lay their eggs. The egg» take about a month to hatch, 
and by scalding the rags at short intervals all the eggs would be destroyed. If 
the plan of tying rags to sticks be adopted these can be dipped in scalding water 
and again replaced at once without untying the rags. 

With this as with most of the other injurious insects the most important thing 
is for the florist to recognise the serious nature of the attack and the necessity of 
carrying on the war unceasingly until every appearance of the enemy ceases. 



HYMENOPTERA PARASITICA. 

BY W. HAGUE HARRIXGTOX, OTTAWA. 

In his excellent work entitled a " Synopsis of the Families and Genera of the 
Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico," Mr. E. T. Cresson gives the following 
concise statement of the general characters of the order Hymenoptera. 

Wings four, membranous, the posterior pair almost always smaller than the 
anterior, with comparatively few nervures. 

Mouth mandibulate, and with a lower lip or tongue, sheathed by the 
maxillaB. 

Tarsi generally 5-jointed, rarely 3 or 4-jointed, very rarely heteromerous. 
Abdomen of the female furnished with a multivalve saw ovipositor, a borer, 
or a sting. 

Larva vermiform and footless, except in the Phyllophaga and Xylophaga. 
Pupa incomplete and inactive. 

Keeping these definitions in view it will be seldom difficult even for those 
who are not entomologists to decide whether a certain insect belongs to the 
Hymenoptera. Many flies (order Diptera) have a close superficial resemblance to 
species of Hymenoptera, but they may at once be distinguished on an examina- 
tion of the wings, of which they invariably have only two. 



65 



Again insects may be found with four membranous transparent wings, as 
dragon flies (order Pseudoneuroptera) or cicadas (order Hemiptera), but in these 
orders the wings have a great number of nervures, or veins, forming a close net- 
work, and in all hemipterous species (bugs) the mouth is transformed into a pro- 
boscis, and lacks the mandibles or jaws common to Hymenoptera, and which are 
very apparent in large species like the bees. 

We are informed that the abdomen of the female is furnished with a saw 
ovipositor, a borer, or a sting, and the order can be roughly divided into three 
sections based upon these differences in the sexual organs. The first section may 
be styled Phyllophaga (leaf -feeders), and contains the well-known saw flies, the 
larv86 of which are caterpillar-like and possessed of feet. The second section 
includes the Xylophaga (wood-feeders), generally known as horntails, the larvae 
of which infest the trunks of trees, and the Parasitica (parasites) to which belong 
the long-stings and numerous allied forms. The third section Aculeata (sting- 
bearers) contains the bees, wasps, ants, etc. 

Of the first and third sections as above indicated I have in former reports 
treated briefly, and I will now endeavor to outline the Parasitica, which consti- 
tute almost the entire second section, and which by reason of their great number 
and complexity of structure will make my task a difficult one to undertake in a 
single paper. 

The section Parasitica contains at least half of the described species of our 
Hymenoptera, and the number of undeseribed forms must be very large, as many 
of them are extremely minute and require more careful collecting and study than 
many entomologists can devote to them. They are divided into several families, 
of which some contain a large number of genera and species, and which will be 
briefly treated of in systematic order. 

Cynipid^. — This family coii tains a moderate number of small species (often 
minute) and is divided into two sections, one containing three and the other two 
subfamilies. The species contained in the first section are in the larval state 
chiefly producers of galls, or dwellers therein, instead of being truly parasitic in 
their mode of life. There is reason to believe, however, that the few species 
which constitute the first subfamily (Ibaliinse) are true parasites upon the larvae 
of wood-boring insects. The principal Canadian species is lhalia macwlipennis 
Hald., which occurs somewhat rarely on maple and beech. The structure of the 
insect is such as to attract attention, for though of moderate size (hardly three- 
fourths of an inch in length) it is still the largest of our Cynipidae, and is easily 
distinguished by its strongly compressed or knife-shaped abdomen. Within the 
abdomen, which constitutes merely a sheath for it, is coiled a delicate ovipositor, 
much longer than the insect itself, with which it deposits its eggs in the decaying 
trunks of the beech and maple, where the larvae when hatched probably exist 
upon other insects infesting the wood. 

The subfamily Cynipinse contains species producing galls upon plants. The 
trees most subject to their attacks are the various species of oak ; the galls occur- 
ring upon them and the insects produced therefrom being in themselves a suffi- 
cient study for an entomologist. Some of the galls, such as the oak-apple, are of 
enormous size as compared with the minute grub which occupies the central cell 
therein, and which by some mysterious influence upon the growth of the plant 
sk-ucture causes this wonderful abnormal development. The various species of 
roses are also very liable to the attack of these insects, the galls chiefly occurring 
being large potato-shaped ones upon the roots, oval woody enlargements of the 
stems and clusters of pea-shaped swellings upon the leaves. Although various 
plants, including the raspberry and blackberry, are subject to these attacks there 
is not space to enumerate them here. 
5 (en.) 



66 



The subfamily Inquilin{» as its title indicates contains species which are 
inquilines or guests in the galls of the preceding species, which in structure and 
appearance they closely resemble. 

The truly parasitic species of tbe Cynipidse are comparatively few in 
number. 

EVANIID.E. — The species belonging to this family are easily distinguished, as 
the abdomen is attached to the disc or base of the metathorax, instead of to the 
apex as in the other families. The species found in Canada belong chiefly to the 
genus Aulacus, the members of which frequent decaying trees, in which they may 
be found ovipositing. We have also two species of Foenus — insects with a curious 
sickle-shaped abdomen — of which one [F. incertus) has a short ovipositor, while 
the other {F. tarsatorius) has a very long one. They may frequently be seen 
flying about trees, telegraph poles, etc., examining and entering insect burrows 
and crevices, and also upon golden-rod and other flowers in autumn. They are 
said to be parasitic upon certain bees. The species of E vania, which have curious 
hatch ed-shaped abdomens, are said to infest cockroaches. 

Trigonalid^. — This family contains only one genus (Trigonalys) and the 
four species therein are of rare occurrence and not as yet recorded from Canada. 
Habits unknown to me. 

IcHNEUMONlDiE. — This family is a very extensive one and contains our largest 
and best known parasites. It is divided into five sub-families of somewhat equal 
size. Of the sub-family Ichneumoninse there are more than two hundred species 

credited to the typical genus Ichneumon, and 
of these at least fifty occur in the vicinity of 
Ottawa. These ichneumons are somewhat 
wasp-like in form, but more slender ; our largest 
species {I. grandis) is sometimes an inch in 
length, but some of the smaller species are less 
than one-third of an inch and the average size 
is about two-thirds. The ovipositor is short 
and retracted within the abdomen so as to be 
rarely visible, but the females may be dis- 
tinguished by their stouter abdomens, and 
frequently by the antennae being rolled, while 
those of the males are longer and straight. 
The anterior wings have a small pentagonal cell 
called an areolet, which occurs also in many 
other Hymenoptera, (see wing of Cryptus, 
Fig. 29) although the areolet is incomplete, 
triangular, rudimentary or wanting in many 
genera. Many of the ichneumons are entirely black (or with a few white 
markings,) others have the abdomen red, others again are banded with black 
and yellow, or are ferruginous with black markings. They are parasites of the 
caterpillars of our butterflies and moths. The genus Ambly teles contains a num- 
ber of species almost identical in appearance with those of the preceding genus 
and of similar habits. Hoplismenus is distinguished by having pointed tubercles 
or spines upon the metathorax. A common and well marked species is H. 
morulus, which is a parasite of certain butterflies. The genus Trogus contains 
a few large species of which T. exesorius, a yellow species with smoky wings, is 
a common parasite of the caterpillars of our Black Swallow-tail butterfly, 
Fapilio asterias. 

Ckyptin^. — Cryptus, the typical genus of this sub-family, contains species 




Fig. 29. 



67 




very similar in shape and colouring to those of the preceding sub-family, but 
of smaller size and having the ovipositor exserted and sometimes quite long. A 
common species is Cryptus extrematis which I have 
frequently bred from the cocoons of our large moth 
Telea polyphemus. Figure 29 shows the female and 
Figure 30 a cross-section of the moth's cocoon, indi- 
cating how the cocoons of the parasite lie side by side 
within it closely packed. The genus contains a great 
many species, as does also the genus Phygadeuon, 
the species of which differ chiefly in having the 
ovipositor shorter. The genus Hemiteles contains small 
species with incomplete areolet, which are said to be secondary parasites 
parasites of parasites, while the species belonging to Pezomachus are wingless 
and ant- like in shape and may be found upon the ground or on foliage. 

Ophionin^. — The species included in this sub-family usually have the 
ovipositor short, and they differ from the rest of the Ichneumonidae in having 

the abdomen compressed laterally, so that it 
becomes sickle-shaped. Some of the larger 
forms show this in a marked degree. The 
typical genus Ophion contains large yellow 
insects of which some are very abundant. Our 
largest species is Ophion macrurum (Figure 31) 
which is a parasite of the caterpillar of the 
large American silkworm moth {Telea poly- 
phemus). The larva of the ophion is a large, 
stout grub, which when full grown spins a 
dark brown cocoon which almost fills the 
cocoon of the moth, and from which the fly 
emerges by cutting a circular door at one end. 
0. bilineatum infests the White Miller moths, 
while 0. purgatum (which has two yellow 
specks in one of the cells of the anterior wing) is a x^arasite of the army worm. 

Thyreodon morio is a fine insect of nearly the size and shape of 0. macruruvi, 
but of a deep black colour, with dark, smoky wings and yellow antennse. The genera 
Exochilum and Heteropelma contain a few large species of the same general 
appearance, while Opheltes glaucopterus might be mistaken for Ophion 
onacrurum, except that there is an areolet in the anterior wing and that the 
terminal segments of the abdomen are black. This fine species has been bred by 
my friend Mr. Fletcher from the cocoons of 
Cimhex Americana, the great Willow Sawfly.* 
Anomalon and Campoplex contain a large 
number of species of moderate size, with the 
abdomen long and very thin. They are 
parasites of caterpillars, such as the de- 
structive Tent caterpillars, and they do good 
service in keeping down such pests. 
Another large genus of very beneficial species 
is Limneria, but in this and the remaining 
genera of the sub-family the species are mostly 
small. Figure 32 shows Thersilochus conotra- 
cheli a parasite of the plum weevil. In Banchus 
with a sharp spine. 





Fig. 32. 

the scutellum is often armed 



Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XIX, p. 80. 



68 



Tryphonin^e. — In this and the following sub-family the abdomen instead of 
being compressed laterally and thus being more or less knife-shaped, is cylindrical or 
flattened vertically, especially the basal segment, which instead of forming a 
slender petiole, is in the majority of genera attached to the thorax by its 
full width. In the present sub-family the ovipositor is short and not exserted. 
There are a number of genera, of which Mesoleptus and Tryphon are the most 
important, but without figures it would be difficult to satisfactorily describe any 
of the species. Euceros is distinguished by its flattened antennae and Chorinseus 
by having one or two segments of the abdomen longitudinally keeled above, as 
in the genus Rhogas of the Braconidae. 

PiMPLiN^. — This sub-family contains many fine species, including the largest 
and most striking of all our Hymenoptera. The structure of the abdomen is 
generally as in the preceding sub-family, but the exserted ovipositor is usually 
at least half the length of the abdomen, and not unfrequently is much longer 
than the whole body of the insect. This development of the ovipositor is due to 
the fact that the victims of those species in which it is very long are usually 
wood-borers, dwelling in burrows in the wood or under the bark of various trees 
and apparently secure from the attacks of the enemies of more exposed species. 
Arotes contains several handsome species ; black, with markings of yellow or 
white, and with the ovipositor about the length of the insect. I have found them 
ovipositing in dead hickory, infested by Saperda discoidea, etc. Of Rhyssa there 
are five species recorded from Canada, of which R. persuasoria is also found in 
Europe. This is a large species, the female (with ovipositor) being 2J inches in 
length. The general colour is black, with white markings, but the legs are 
rufous. Provancher states that this species is an especial parasite of the large 
pine-borers, Monohammus confusor and M. scutellatus. I have not recognized 
the species at Ottawa yet, but have a male apparently belonging to it from Rev. 
G. W. Taylor, of Victoria, B.C. The closely allied genus Thalessa contains the 
giants of the Parasitica, those large species popularly known as " Long-stings." 
Two species, atrata and lunator, are common, while three others, which may be 
perhaps varieties, are recorded. The specific name of Thalessa atrata signifies 
that the species is black, and this is true of the female, with the exception of the 
head, the antennae and portions of the legs. The male, however, has the legs 
almost entirely yellow, the thorax much varied with the same colour, and the 
abdomen much lighter than that of the female. A large female measures fully 
an inch and a half from the head to the tip of the abdomen, beyond which the 
ovipositor extends five inches. The legs, wings and antennae are developed in 
proportion, so that the motions of the insect are active and she flies strongly. The 
size of these insects and their curious method of oviposition (egg-placing) have 
made them objects of much interest to entomologists. Their larvae are parasites 
(feeding externally) of the grubs of the wood boring " Horn tail " called Tremex 
Golumha. I am sorry that space does not permit me to give a fuller account of 
their habits, which have been very carefully worked out by Prof Riley. In T. 
lunator, which is a somewhat smaller species and more variable in size, the thorax 
and abdomen are largely marked with yellow. To those who wish to observe 
these insects I may say that they can generally be found about old maples and 
beeches in midsummer. 

The genus Ephialtes contains several fine species having the abdomen 
tuberculate along the sides and the ovipositor as long as the insect itself. E. 
irritator, which I have taken on dead hickory in June has the abdomen and legs 
re^d, but other large species such as gigas and occidentalis are black, with the 
exception of the legs. 



69 




Fig. 33. 




Fig. 34. 



Pimpla, the genus from which the sub-family takes its name, contains a num- 
ber of very useful species of which P. conquisitor (Figure ^S) is a great aid in 
checking the ravages of the 
Forest Tent-caterpillar. I 
observed it to be very abund- 
ant in 1889. This species has 
the segments of the abdomen 
margined with white, but in 
our other species the thorax 
and abdomen are entirely 
black. The legs, however, 
as in this species, are usually 
red, and more or less variegated with black and white. 
Our largest species, P. pedalis, also an enemy of 
Clisiocampa, has the legs red, with the exception of 
the hinder tibiae and tarsi, which are black, while P. 
pterelas, which can be bred in large numbers from 
pods of iris infested by the beetle Mononychus vulpeculus, has its legs entirely 
red. A very closely allied species P. annulipes (Figure 34) is said to be a parasite 
of Carpocapsa pomonella, the Codling moth, whose larvae do such enormous 
damage to our apples. 

Differing from Pimplas chiefly in colour are two yellow species belonging to 
the genus Theronia. In Victoria, B.C., in May, 1888, I observed T. fulvescens to 
be very abundant and as it is a parasite of the western Tent-caterpillar, which 
was then in immense numbers, I have no donbt that the insects were then 
engaged in the good work of depositing their eggs in the obnoxious caterpillars. 
The species which occurs here is called Theronia melanocephala from its black 
head, and I have bred it from cocoons of Halesidota maculata. 

The sub-family contains many other genera, some of which, as Xorides, 
Xylonomus, Ecthrus and Odontomerus. include large handsome species. 

Stephanid^. — This family only contains two genera, and the American 
species described are only four in number. They are rare in collections, and none 
are yet reported from Canada I think. In appearance they much resemble some 
species of the next family, and having long ovipositors are probably parasites of 
wood-borers. 

BRACONID.E. — The described species of this famil}^ are not so numerous as 
those of the ichneumonidae, nor are they so large, but they include many inter- 
esting forms, and many of great use in keeping down noxious insects. The 
braconids are distinguished from the ichneumonids by the venation of the 
anterior wings, which laclv the cross-vein known as the second recurrent nervure. 
On examining the wing of Cryptus, for instance, (see Fig. 29) there is seen just 
below the areolet (or little pentagonal cell) a cross-vein, but if the wing of a 
Bracon (see Fig. 35) is examined it will readily be seen that there is no trace of 
a corresponding cross- vein. In the braconids also (except in one small section) 
the second and third segments of the abdomen are rigidly connected, instead of 
being flexibly jointed. They are separated into five divisions, which are further 
divided into sub-families. 

Cyclostomi. — In this division the clypeus (or portion of face ju^t above the 
mouth) is emarginate, thus forming a semi-circular opening above the mandibles 
or jaws. There are nine sub-families, but the majority of the species are con- 
tained in the genera Bracon and Rhogas. 



70 




ViG. 35. 



The larger species of Bracon are usually black, with bright red abdomen, 

dark, smoky wings, and a long ovipositor. They 
may be seen upon dead trees, and are largely para- 
sitic upon the larvae of beetles which infest the 
trees. The larva of the Bracon spins a tough oval 
cocoon, perfectly flat above and below. Such 
cocoons can frequently be found under the bark of 
maple, cedar, etc., in the burrows of the beetles 
upon which the parasites preyed. The smaller 
species are reddish or yellowish, and infest 
dipterous and other larvae. Fig. 35 shows Bracon 
charus which is said to be a parasite of Chrysoho- 
thris femorata, the flat-headed apple tree-borer. 

The species of Bhogas diflfer from Bracon in 
having the ovipositor short, the wings transparent, 
and especially in having the first segments of the 
abdomen carinate. R. intermedius is a medium 
sized yellow species which I have frequently bred 
from a handsome caterpillar (Acronycta sp.) 

Many larvae live in one caterpillar, which dies from the attack when it is about 
full grown. The victims may frequently be seen extended on stems of grass, appar- 
ently at rest, but on closer examination are found to be stiff" and hard, and per- 
haps riddled with minute holes from which a score or more of the flies have 
issued. 

Cryptogastres. — The species included in this division are easily recognized 
by the form of the abdomen which, instead of consisting of several segments, 
with sutures (or joints) between them, seems to be in one piece. This shield-like 
abdomen, however, consists of the first three segments welded together. It con- 
ceals the ventral segments, and thus gives the name to the division, which con- 
tains the two sub-families, Sigalphinae and Cheloninae. 

Fig. 36 shows very clearly the male and female of Sigalphus curculionis, 
which is one of the parasites of the 
plum-curculio. 

Areolarii. — In this division 
the distinguishing feature is in the 
venation of the wing, in which the 
second submarginal is minute, form- 
ing a small triangular areolet, or often 
imperfect. There are two subfamilies 
as in the preceding division. The 
first includes the well-known genera 
Apanteles and Microgaster ; each con- 
taining many species, which, though 
small, are of great benefit in holding 
lepidopterous larvae in check. Mr. Howard (in Scudder s Butterflies of the United 
States and Canada) mentions no less than sixteen species of Apanteles as para- 
sites of butterflies, 

PoLYMORPHi. — This division contains several subfamilies, and includes some 
large species, such as Helcon, but it is almost impossible without illustrations to 
give any satisfactory idea of the numerous genera. Fig. 37 shows, greatly enlarged, 
MacTocentrus delicatus, a parasite of the Codling moth. 




IiG. 36. 



71 



ExODONTES. — This division is very poorly represented in Canada, or at 

least in collections. The species are 
small, but may be distinguished by an 
examination of the mouth parts ; the 
mandibles have the tips turned outward 
(as the name of division indicates), and 
cannot therefore be used for biting. 

Flexiventres. — This division con- 
tains species which differ from all the 
other braconids in having the segments 
of the abdomen freely articulated, so 
that it can be bent under the thorax. 
There is only one sub-family, the Aphid- 
iinse, and the species are very small, yet 
they are of great economic importance, 
as they are parasites of various species 
of aphides, or plant-lice. The larva 
feeds inside the aphis, which becomes 
swollen, and finally is found fixed to 
the plant on which it has been feeding, 
a mere dead shell from which the tiny 
parasitic fly has escaped. The grain 
aphis is said to be kept in check by one 
species, which alone must save an 
immense sum to our farmers. 

Fig. 37. Chalcidid.e. — Here we have an- 

other very extensive family ; the species 
differing gi*eatly in structure and in habits. They are always small, but 
frequently are very brilliant in appearance, glittering with bright tints and 
metallic lustres. It will only be possible to glance at a few of the forms, as the 
great diversity of structure which obtains among them, and their minuteness 
make their study and identification difficult except for one who can devote much 
time to it. The wings have scarcely any traces of venation, except the vein 
along the front edge. 

Leucospis affinis is our largest species ; a black and yellow fly about one- 
fourth of an inch long, with its ovipositor curved up over the abdomen in a 
curious manner. It is frequently found on golden-rod, and is a parasite of bees. 






f 



Fig. 



Fig. 38. 



Smicra and Chalchis contain species remarkable for the development of the 
hind legs. Fig. 38 shows Smicra marice, which is a parasite of the Cecropia 
caterpillar, and Fig. 39 gives Ohalcis flavi/pes which attacks the larva of the 
cotton moth. 



72 




The genus Torymus contains a number of species, which may be bred from 
different galls. The females have the abdomen flattened ovate, and sometimes 
prolonged to an acute point ; the abdomen of the males is very small, and the 
insects are black. A not uncommon species is T. gigantea, which is bred from 
the large globular galls produced on stems of golden-rod by a fly (Trypeta solid- 
aginis), about the size of a house fly, with mottled wrings. 

The closel}^ allied genus Isosoma contains species which depart from the para- 
sitic habits of the majority of the family, and become themselves noxious insects. 

Isosoma hordei (Fig. 40) is the well-known 
Joint-worm of wheat and barley straw, 
making gall-like swellings at the joints, 
in which several cells may be found, each, 
containing a little grub. 

The sub-family Pteromalinse contains, 
amid a great complex of tribes and genera, 
a correspondingly great number of species. 
The typical genus, Pteromalus, alone con- 
tains more than 30 species, of which some 
are well-known parasites of butterflies. 
P. puparum is recorded as bred from 
eleven species of butterfly, and is a com- 
mon destroyer of the chrysalids of the 
cabbage white butterfly {Pieris rapce) and 
of Vanessa antiopa. I have counted 
more than 450 flies from one pupa of the 
latter, and sometimes scarcely an unin- 
fested chrysalid can be found. The species of Tetrastichus are also frequently 
parasites of butterflies, while T. esurus (Fig. 42) has been bred from the cotton moth^ 
The genus Trichogramma (which constitutes a sub-family) also has similar habits, 
and T. minutum (Fig. 41) is a parasite of our 
large Milkweed Butterfly (Danais archippus). 

Froctotrupid^. — This family has been but 
meagrely investigated in Canada, although the 
species are numerous, and often of interesting 
structure. They are not so varied in coloring as 
the Chalcidid^, to which they are closely related, 
but are usually brown or black. Many of them 
are wingless, living among low herbage and moss, 
and some of the genera consist of species so 
minute that they live and mature in the eggs of 

other insects. I have found clusters of moths' eggs from each of which, instead of 

a young caterpillar, has issued a perfect winged 
fly (Tdeas orgyioe) Those of Scelio infest, I 
believe, the eggs of grasshoppers or crickets. 

Pelecinid^. — This family is a very easy one 
to study, as it contains only one species, Pelecinus 
polyturator, the shape of which is so different 
from all other hymenoptera that it can be quickly 
recognized. This fine insect is of a glossy black, 
with short wings, containing few veins. The male 
has a club-shaped abdomen, but the female has hers 
greatly elongated — about five times the length of 
her head and thorax — her total length is about two inches. The females are 





73 



not uncommon, and generally fly near the ground, but their habits are otherwise 
unknown. I have taken them as far eastward as Nova Scotia, but I do not know 
how far westward their range extends. The male is exceedingly rare, and I have 
only seen one specimen that was captured in Ontario. 

Although this review of the great complex of insects embraced in the Para- 
sitica has been a very rapid and incomplete one, I hope that it has at least given 
some idea of their great number, their diversity of structure and their economic 
importance. We see that egg, larva and pupa are alike subject to their attacks, and 
that scarcely any form of insect defence appears to be sufficient to prevent their 
attacks. The grub gnawing his hidden burrow in the tree, and the scale insect 
adhering firmly to the twig, alike have their parasitic foes differing in size and 
method of attack. 

It will be observed further that the value of any species in destroying 
obnoxious forms does not depend upon its size or strength. The greatest benefits 
are often effected by atoms so minute as almost to escape our search, but which 
by their numbers work wholesale destruction to their victims. The tiny fly that 
destroys a cluster of* eggs is a greater helper than the larger one that might later 
destroy the brood of caterpillars, because in the latter case a certain amount of 
depredation is committed before the labours of the parasite are fulfilled. The 
diminutive devourers of aphides arp of unknown value, as plant-lice increase so 
enormously by rapidly succeeding generations that if it were not for such pro- 
vidential safeguards they would swarm everywhere working devastation. 



INSECTS I^^JURIOUS TO THE ELM. 

BY F. B. CAULFIELD, MONTREAL. 

First are insects injurious to the trunk. 

1. The Common Elm-tree Borer, Saperda tridentata, Oliv, Order Coleop- 
tera, Family CerambycidjB. — A very destructive insect, boring in the inner bark 
and the surface of the wood of elm trees. Fitch states that the eggs are deposited 
in June and that the young larvae nearly complete their growth before winter, 
and soon after warm weather arrives in spring they pass into the pupa state. 
Packard, who has found the larva in abundance in spring in Providence, under 
the bark of old dead elms, describes it as lollows : — " White, sub-cylindrical, a 
little flattened, with the lateral fold of the body rather prominent ; end of the 
body flattened, obtuse, and nearly as wide at the end as at the first abdominal 
ring. The head is one-half as wide as the first prothoracic ring, being rather 
large. The prothoracic segment, or that next to the head, is transversely oblong, 
being about twice as broad as long ; there is a pale dorsal corneous transversely 
oblong shield, being about two-thirds as long as wide, and nearly as long as the 
four succeeding segments ; this is smooth, except on the posterior half, which is 
rough, with the front edge irregular and not extending far down the sides. Fine 
hairs arise from the front edge and sides of the plate, and similar hairs are 
scattered over the body and especially around the end. On the upper side of 
each segment is a transversely oblong ovate roughened area, with the front edge 
shghtly convex, and behind slightly arcuate. On the under side of each segment 
are similar rough horny plates, but arcuate in front, with the hinder edge 
straight. 



74 



It differs from the larva of Saperda vestita, Say, in the shorter body, which 
is broader, more hairy, with the tip of the abdomen flatter and more hairy. The 
prothoracic segment is broader and flatter, and the rough portion of the dorsal 
plates is larger and less transversely ovate." 

These destructive grubs by tunnelling and undermining, loosen large portions 
of the bark, stopping the flow of sap, weakening and finally killing the tree. 

The perfect insect is a flat-bodied beetle, measuring from four to six-tenths 
of an inch in length. It is of a rather dark brown colour above, with a grayish 
tinge caused by a coat of very short downy hairs. The under surface blueish 
gray. The basal joints of the antenna are blackish brown, the remainder paler. 
A line of orange encircles each eye, and a stripe of the same colour runs from the 
antennae to the hind margin of the thorax, and is continued along the edge of the 
wing-covers where they are bent down over the sides of the body, getting 
narrower gradually until it reaches the tip. From this border, three branches or 
teeth run obliquely towards the inner edge of the wing-covers, the middle one 
being the longest. There are six small black spots on the thorax, two on top just 
behind the antennae, and two on each side below the orange stripe, and at each 
angle of the stripes on the wing-covers, there is a small dark patch or spot. 

Any trees known to be attacked by borers should be cut down in the fall or 
during the winter, and Used for firewood, care being taken not to leave any ex- 
posed during the summer ; particularly in June and July, as at this time most of 
our borers deposit their eggs. It follows, therefore, that no freshly cut, or fallen 
trees, or branches should be left lying about, and if cordwood is piled, it should 
be covered, as the borers will surely find all newly felled wood if left exposed, 
and where such carelessness is permitted, will congregate and multiply year after 
year. 

2. The Lateral Elm Borer, Saperda lateralis, Fab, Order Coleoptera, Family 
Cerambycidse. — This beetle very closely resembles the preceding species, and its 
habits appear to be the same ; it differs somewhat in markings, as the orange 
border on the wing-covers wants the three teeth running towards the inner mar- 
gin. It bores in the inner bark of the elm, appearing in June, but seems to be 
less common than Saperda tridentata. 

3. The Six-banded Dryobius, Dryohius sexfasciatus, Say, Order Coleoptera, 
Family Cerambycidse. — According to Dr. Fitch, the larva of this species is similar 
to that of Saperda tridentata, and is found along with it ; it is, however, larger 
than that species. 

The perfect insect is a black beetle measuring from three-fourths to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length. The general colour is black, the thorax deeply 
margined with yellow, and each wing-cover is ornamented with four oblique 
bands of the same colour ; the scutel, as entomologists name the little triangular 
piece at the base of the wing-covers, is also yellow. The antennae are reddish 
brown, the legs reddish, the thighs being dilated or swollen, the abdomen is banded 
with yellow. I do not find this species on the Society's list of Canadian beetles, 
but think I have seen it recorded by a Canadian entomologist. 

4. The Short-lined Dularius, Dularius hrevilineus. Say, Order Coleoptera, 
Family Cerambycidae. — This is a large black longicorn beetle, with dark blue wing- 
covers, not covering the whole of the abdomen ; a rounded thorax, flattened above 
and the thighs very much swollen. " The antennae are about two-thirds the 
length of the body, flattened towards the end, and somewhat serrate. The body 
above is velvety black, and brown black beneath. The head is black and coarsely 
punctured, and the prothorax is covered with short, dense, black hairs, like velvet. 
The wing-covers are Prussian blue in colour, bent, corrugated, with an interrupted 
ridge just outside the middle of each cover. They are covered with fine black 



75 



hairs, bent over. There is a pair of parallel short honey-yellow lines in the 
middle of each wing-cover, with a third one a little in front, making in all six 
streaks. The legs and feet are black. It is a little over eight-tenths of an inch 
in length." (Packard). 

Bores in elm trees. Mr. George Hunt has observed this species inserting its 
eggs in the crevices of the bark. Occurs in Ontario and Quebec, but apparently 
is not abundant. 

5. The Red-headed Clytus, Neodytus erythrocephalus Fab, Order Coleop- 
tera, Family Cerambycidae. — This pretty little beetle bores in the elm and also in 
hickory, etc. " It is about one-third of an inch long, and hardly one-tenth of an 
inch wide, the thorax being very cylindrical and as w^ide as the wing-covers. 
The colour is a rusty red, the head being of a lighter red, whence the name 
erythrocephalus, from two Greek words signifying " red-head." The antennae are 
about one-half as long as the body ; the elytra have four narrow yellow bands 
across them, and the legs are long and slender, especially the hinder pair, which 
are almost twice as long as the body. This beetle is exceedingrly quick in its 
movements, and is difficult to capture as it runs swiftly, and take to flight in- 
stantly, if disturbed." (Harrington). This species has been taken on hickory by 
Mr. W. H. Harrington and has been bred from that tree by Drs. Leconte and Horn. 
It has been found under the bark of an old sugar maple by Mr. G. Hunt, and 
bred from oak by Dr. Riley. It has been lound boring in dead elms in Michigan 
by Hubbard, and I have myself found it at Montreal on a fallen red oak. so that 
it appears to infest various kinds of forest trees. 

At least two species of bark-beetles are known to infest the elm. The 
Scolytidoe, to which family they belong, are all of very small size. The female 
drives a long gallery between the bark and the wood, depositing an egg at inter- 
vals as she progresses ; each larva when hatched drives a tunnel at almost a right 
angle to the main gallery, and when its transformations are completed, cuts a hole 
through the bark, through w^hich it escapes. A tree infested by these insects, 
looks as if it had been riddled with shot, and the surface of the wood is scored in 
all directions with their burrows, loosening the bark and destroying the tree. 

6. The Elm Bark-borer, Phlceotribus liminaris, Harris, Order Coleoptera, 
Family Scolytidae. — According to Dr. Harris this little beetle " is of a dark-brown 
colour ; the thorax is punctured, and the wing-covers are marked w^ith deeply 
punctured furrows, and beset with short hairs. It does not average one-tenth of 
an inch in length." 

7. The Black Elm Bark-borer, Hylesinus opaculus, Leconte, Order Coleop- 
tera, Family Scolytidae. — This is a stoutly built pitchy-black beetle found under 
the dry bark of elm and ash trees. Both these species are given in the Society's 
list of Canadian beetles. 

8. According to Packard, The Sxowy Tree Cricket, (Ecanthus niveus, Ser- 
ville, deposits its eggs in the corky bark of the elm in the Southern States. The 

perfect insect, Fig. 43, is a slightly formed pale green cricket, 
with ivory white wings ; the 
female. Fig. 44, with a long ovi- 
positor. Very common in Ontario 
and Quebec, as far east as Mon- 
treal. . I'ig- 44. 
Second are insects injuring the leaves. 
9. The Antiopa Butterfly, Vanessa antiopa, Linne, 
Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae. — Every one who has 
Fig 43. walked through the woods in early spring, must have noticed a 
large dark-colored butterfly, that dashing up when approached, after circling 





76 



around for a few moments, now fluttering, and anon gliding on motionless wing,, 
settles down again in some sheltered spot where it sits opening and closing its 
wing.s, enjoying the balmy air and bright sunshine that once again awakens 
nature from her death-like sleep, to renewed life and activity. This is the well- 
known Antiopa butterfly, the " Camberwell Beauty " of the English entomologists. 
Antiopa passes the winter in any convenient shelter that it can find. Dr. Harris 
tells us that he has found it sticking to the rafters of a barn, and in the crevices 
of walls and stone heaps, huddling together in great numbers. It also hibernates 
on the ground, clinging to the under surface of stones in dry situations. The 
female deposits her eggs in a cluster around a twig of elm, willow or poplar ; and 
until nearly full grown, the caterpillars keep together. The mature larva is black, 
thickly dotted with white giving it a grayish appearance. On top of the back is a 
row of eight brick-red spots, and the body is armed with a number of strong branch- 
ing spines. The first brood of caterpillars appears in June, the second in August, 
and the butterflies from the last brood hibernate. The butterfly is dark maroon 
brown on the upper side of the wings, with a broad border of yellow, thickly 
dotted with brown ; on the inner side of this border there is a band of black, in 
which is set a row of blue spots ; the front edge of the wings is marked with fine 
yellow lines and two spots of the same colour. A variety is occasionally met with, 
in which the yellow border is unusually broad, and the dark band with the blue 
spots is wanting. 

If numerous enough to be troublesome, these caterpillars may be killed by 
shaking them off* the branch on which they are congregated, and crushing them. 
This should be done while they are small, as when nearly full grown, they scatter 
over the trees and wander about in search of a suitable place in which to undergo 
their transformations. 

10. The Interrogation Butterfly, Grapta interrogationis, Fah, Order 
Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidse. — This is a dimorphic species, the hibernating 
form being known as Fahricii, the other as Umhrosa. Fig. 45 represents G. 

progne, a closely allied species. 

Farther to the south there are about four 
broods in a season, but with us only two,, 
and while the last brood gives the pale form 
which hibernates, the other broods are more 
or less mixed, Fahricii has the upper surface 
fulvous, spotted with black and clouded with 
warm brown ; on the hind wings the brown pre- 
dominates, the lighter colour being restricted 
to a patch on the upper angle, and a row of 
spots a little inside the outer edge ; the edges 
of all the wings are light purplish blue. The front margin of the fore wings is 
convex, the tip cut squarely off", the outer margin concave. Hind wings tailed. 
Under surface marbled and clouded with various shades of brown and purple, and 
with an interrupted C. in the middle Umhrosa has the upper surface of the hind 
wings almost entirely black, the submarginal row of spots being absent, the fore 
wings are not so falcate, and the tail on the hind wings is shorter. 

" The young larvae are whitish yellow, somewhat marked with brown, head 
black. After the first moult their colour is black, more or less specked with white^ 
and they begin to be clothed with short spines, all black except those on the 
eighth and tenth segments which are whitish. After the second moult they be- 
gin to assume the type they retain to maturity. The spines are in seven rows, 
fleshy at base, slender and many-branching at extremity ; the dorsal and first 




77 




black 



Fig. 46. 

line before the frinere. 



The 



lateral on joint 3 are black, on joints 2, 4, and 11 russet, the rest yellow; the 
second laterals black throughout, the lowest row greenish , head bilobed, black, 
vvith short black spines on vertices. After the third moult the larvge vary great- 
ly both in colour of body and spines. Some are black, finely specked with yellow- 
ish ; others are yellow-brown, specked with yellow tubercles ; others gray -brown 
with indistinct reddish lines between the spines on the dorsal and two lateral 
rows, and much tuberculated ; others are black with fulvous stripes and profusely 
covered with yellowish tuberculated spots and points. The spines vary from 
black to fulvous and green and yellow. (French). Feeds on elm, basswood, hop, 
nettle and false nettle. 

Grapta comma, Harris, closely resembles the preceding species but is 
smaller, and the wings are not so decidedly falcate, Food plants the same. 

11. The Spring Canker Worm, Anisopteryx ver7iata,'Peck, Order Lepidop- 
tera, Family Phalsenidse. — Late in autumn when the leaves have fallen and the 
insect tribes have almost entirely disappeared, this fragile looking moth. Fig. 46, 

may be seen flying slowly through the de- 
serted woods. " The fore wings of the male 
are ash -coloured and semitransparent, with a 
broken whitish band crossing the wings near 
the outer margin, and three interrupted 
brownish lines between that and the base. 
There is an oblique black dash near the tip 
of the fore wings and a nearly continuous 
hind wings are plain, pale ash-coloured, or 
very light gray, with a dusky dot about the middle of each." (Saunders.) 

A second species, A pometaria, Fig. 47, very closely resembles vernata, but 
the wiugs are less transparent and are a little darker in colour, and the hind 
wings are generally crossed by a white band, 
wingless. The eggs are deposited in masses, 
generally in crevices in the bark. The larvas 
vary in colour from greenish yellow to gray 
and dark brown. When fully grown they 
leave the trees by creeping down or else lower 
themselves by means of a silken thread and 
enter the ground to change to chrysalis. The 
moths generally emerge late in the fall, but some individuals do not appear until 
spring. To prevent the females creeping up the trees, strips of canvass or stiff 
paper, covered with tar or printers' ink, should be applied to the tree, renewing 
the covering from time to time to keep it soft and sticky, and as the moths may 
deposit their eggs below the band care must be taken to leave no crevices through 
which the young caterpi.lars might pass. 

Canker worms are widely distributed, occurring in Canada as far east as 
Montreal at least. They feed on many kinds of leaves, and where precautionary 
measures are not adopted often prove exceedingly injurious. 

12. The 'November Moth, Epirrita dilutata, Hubn, Order Lepidoptera, 
family Phalsenidae. — This moth, like the Canker worm, flies late in autumn and 
would be easily mistaken for that insect. The body and wings are pale ash 
gray, the fore wings with eight wavy black lines and double row of black dots 
next the mari;(in. Fringe whitish. Hind wings with four faint wavy lines. 
Wings expand about an inch and a quarter. Although generally not common in 
this neighbourhood, it is occasionally quite abundant. 




Fig. 47. 



78 



, The following insects are also known to feed on the elm : 

Colcoptcra. — Galeruca calmariensis, Linn ; Chrysomela scalaris, Leconte ; Monocesta caryli, S&y ; Grap- 
todera chalybea, 111 ; Cotalpa lanigera, Linn ; Magdalis armicollis. Say. 

Hyvicnoptcra. — Tremex columba, Linn ; Cimbex Americana, Leach. 

Hemiptera. — Colopha ulmicola, Fitch ; Eriosoma Rileyi, Thomas ; Schizoneura Americana, Riley ; 
Callipterus ulmicola, Thomas. 

Lepidoptcra. — Papilio tumus, Linn ; Ceratomia quadricornis, Harris ; Hyphantria textor, Harris ; 
Telea polyphemiis, Hubn ; Hyperchiria io, Fab ; Halisidota caryse, Harris ; Orgyia nova, Fitch ; Orgyia 
leucostigma, Abb and Smith ; Datana ministra, Drury ; Tolype velleda, Stoll ; Edema albifrons. Walk ; 
Clisiocampa Americana, Harris ; Clisiocampa sylvatica, Harris ; Apatela vinnula, Grote ; Apatela occi- 
dentalis, Grote ; Apatela morula, Guen ; Apatela ulmi, Harris ; Paraphia unipunctaria, Haw ; Metanema 
quercivorana, Guen ; Hibernia tiliaria, Harris ; Sicya mucularia, Guen ; Mrtrocampa perlaria, Guen ; 
Eugonia subsignaria, Hubn ; Nephopteryx undulatella, Clem ; Nephopteryx ? ulmi-arrosorella, Clem ; 
Bactra ? argutana, Clem : Lithocolletis argentinotella, Clem ; LithocoUetis ulmella, Clem ; Argyresthia 
austerella, Zeller. 

Mr. A. F. Winn informs me that Pyrameis atalanta, Linn, feeds readily on 
elm in confinement and that he has seen Grapta j-album ovipositing on it. 



THE ENTOMOLOGY OF SHAKESPEARE. 



BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Some time ago, in a list of books upon Shakespeare and his works, I noticed 
that there was one upon the Entomology of Shakespeare. The book was beyond 
my reach. It occurred to me that it would be an interesting study to examine 
for myself and find out what particulars the great moralist and prince of poets, 
had gathered concerning insects from the folk-lore of his day and his own obser- 
tion, and to what account in his plays he had turned the knowledge he had gained. 
Accordingly, as leisure was afforded me, I read over the plays carefully and noted 
down the allusions to insects that I discovered. I found that the plays contained 
at least 168 references to insects, viz. : — ^To honey-bees, 18 ; humble-bees, 5 ; 
wasps, 8 ; ants, 3 ; stinging-insect undesignated, 1 ; butterflies, 6 ; moths and their 
larvse, 24 ; beetles and their larvse, 11 ; gnats, 10 ; fleas, 6 ; brize-flies, 2 ; bots, 1 ; 
blow-flies, 1(> ; flies, 22; sheep-tick, 1; louse, 8; cricket, 4; locust, 1; grasshop- 
per, 1 ; spiders, 17 ; scorpions, 3. Grouped according to orders these would give : 
Hymenoptera, 35 ; Lepidoptera, 30 ; Diptera, 58 ; Coleoptera, 11 ; Hemiptera, 
7 ; Orthoptera, 6 ; Arachnida, 20. The references which I discovered are thus 
distributed : The highest numbers are in Troilus and Cressida, 11 notices refer- 
ring to 9 species ; Romeo and Juliet, 11 notices referring to 8 species ; and 2nd Part 
of K. Henry YI., 10 notices referring to 6 species. Midsummer Night's Dream,. 
K. Henry Y., Cymbeline, and King Lear have 8 notices each ; 1st Part of K. 
Henry lY. and Hamlet have 7 each ; The Tempest, 2nd Part of K. Henry lY.,. 
Coriolanus, Antony and Cleopatra, Titus Andronicus and Othello have each 6 
notices ; The Winter's Tale has 5 ; The Merchant of Yenice, Taming of the Shrew 
3rd Part of K. Henry YI., and Pericles Prince of Tyre have 4 each ; The Two 
Gentlemen of Yerona, Love's Labour's Lost, King John and 1st Part of K. Henry 
YI. have 3 each ; Merry Wives of Windsor, Comedy of Errors, Macbeth, King 
Richard II. and Julius Caesar have 2 each ; Measure for Measure, As you like it^ 
All's well that ends well. King Richard III., King Henry YIII. and Timon of 
Athens have each a solitary reference ; and in Much ado about nothing I could 
find none. The number of species mentioned is over 30. We will take them 
according to orders. 



79 



Hymenoptera. — Shakespeare's ideas of the honey-bee seem to have been 
somewhat confused. He was misled probably by the old-world learning newly 
revived in his day ; and, in his allusions to the *' magnanimous leaders, the man- 
ners and employments, the tribes and battles of the race," he seems to have fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of Virgil (Georgics, Book IV.), or of writers who were 
acquainted with Virgil. His Archbishop of Canterbury in King Henry V. speaks 
of the head of the hive as a " King." The passage in which this occurs is very 
fine ; and I am tempted to give it in its entirety. 

So work the honey-bees ; 

Creatures, that, by a rule in nature, teach 
The act of order to a peopled kingdom. 
They have a king, and officers of sorts : 
Where some, like magistrates, correct at home : 
Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad ; 
Others, like soldiers, armei in their stings 
Make boot upon the summer's velvet buds ; 
Which pillage they with merry march bring home 
To the tent-royal of their emperor : 
Who, busied in his majesty, surveys 
The singing masons building roofs of gold ; 
The civil citizens kneading up the honey ; 
The poor mechanic porters crowding in 
Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate ; 
The sad ey'd justice, with his surly hum, 
Delivering o'er to executor's pale 
The lazj' yawning drone. 

Act I. sc. 1. 

It would seem too that the strange story told by Virgil — how Aristseus, son 
of Gyrene, sacrificed cattle and left the carcases exposed till, " wondrous to relate, 
bees through all the belly hum amidst the putrid bowels of the cattle, pour forth 
with fermenting juices from the burst sides, and in immense clouds roll along, 
then swarm together on a top of a tree and hang down from the bending boughs " 
(Georgics, Bk. IV.) — had left an impression upon his mind, for he puts in the 
mouth of King Henry IV., who is lamenting the behaviour of Prince Henry of 
Monmouth, the words : 

'Tis seldom when the bee doth leave the comb 
In the dead carrion. 

Act IV., sc. 4. 

His observations of the bees however were, in many points, correct. He 
noticed that they " gather'd honey from the weed " (Henry V., Act IV., sc. 1) ; 
that they took " toll from every fiower " (2nd Part K. Henry IV., Act IV., sc. 4) ; 
that " drones " rob the hives (Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Act IL, sc. 1 ; Merchant of 
Venice, Act II., sc. 5 ; 2nd Part K. Henry VI,, Act IV., sc. 1) ; that the wasps 
steal the honey and kills the bees (Two Gent, of Verona, Act I., sc. 2, and Titus 
Andronicus, Act II., sc. 3) ; that the swarm deprived of its leader becomes vindic- 
tive : 

The commons like an angry hive of bees 
That want their leader, scatter up and down 
And care not who they sting in his revenge. 

2nd Part K. Henry VI., Act III., sc. 2. 

With the methods pursued by the bee-masters of his day he was acquainted. 
Eolingbroke says : 

like the bee tolling from every flower the virtuous sweets, 

Our thighs pack'd with wax, our mouths with honey 
We bring it to the hive ; and like the bees 
Are murder'd for our pains. 

2nd Part K. Henry IV., Act IV., sc. 4. 

And Talbot in 1st Part of K. Henry VI., Act I., sc. 5 : 

So bees with smoke and doves with noisome stench 
Are from their hives and houses driven away. 

The " Red-hipped humble-bee " of Shakespeare is Bomhus lapidarius. This 



80 



species makes its nest very commonly under stone-piles by the road-side. It is a 
handsome and courageous insect ; and Nick Bottom the Weaver gave the fairy 
Cobweb no light task when he bade him : 

Monsieur Cobweb : good monsieur, get your vreapons in your hand ; and kill me a red-hipped 
humble-bee on the top of a thistle ; and good monsieur, bring me the honey-bag. 

Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV., sc. 1. 

It is to be hoped that Oberon interposed in behalf of the bee, for 

Full merrily the humble-bee doth sing 
Till he hath lost his honey and his sting ; 
And being once subdued in armed tail 
Sweet honey and sweet notes together fail. 

Ibid, Act v., sc. 2. 

Other passages in which bees are mentioned are The Tempest, Act I., sc. 2, 
and Act V., sc. 1 ; Midsummer Night's Dream, Act III., sc. 1, Love's labour's lost, 
Act III., sc. 1 ; All's well that ends well, Act lY., sc. 5 ; Comedy of Errors, Act 
II., sc. 1 ; 2nd Part K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 2 ; Troilus and Cressida, Act I., sc. 
3, Act II., sc. 2, and Act V., sc. 2 ; Cymbeline, Act III., sc. 2 ; and Titus Androni- 
cus, Act IV., sc. 1. 

Shakespeare's allusions to the Wasp (Vespa vulgaris) convey the ideas of: 

(1) Petulance — Tempest, Act V., sc. 1 : 

Mar's hot minion is returned again 

Her waspish-headed son has broke his arrows. 

See also Winter's Tale, Act I., sc. 2 ; 1st Part K. Henry IV., Act I., sc. 3 ; 
and Julius Csesar, Act IV., sc., 3. 

(2) Injustice — Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act I., sc. 2 : 

O hateful hands to tear such loving words 
Injurious wasps ! to feed on such sweet honey. 
And kill the bees that yield it, with your stings. 

(3) Vengeance — Titus Andronicus, Act II., sc. 3 : 

When you have the honey you desire 

Let not this wasp outlive, us both to sting. 

In the 3rd Part of K. Henry VI., Act II., sc. 6, it is said of the defeated 
Lancastrians : 

For though they cannot greatly sting to hurt, 
Yet kok to have them buz to offend thine ears. 

The commonest species of English ants is Formica rufa. This probably is the 
species mentioned in 1st Part of K. Henry IV., Act I., sc. 3 by Hotspur : 

Why, look you, I am whipp'd and scourg'd with rods, 
Nettled and stung with pismires. 

Among the "skimble-skamble stuff" that angered Hotspur was Glendower's 
talk of "the moldwarp and the ant" (lb. Act III., sc. 1). The ant also is men- 
tioned in King Lear, Act II., sc. 4. 

Lepidopteea. — To butterflies there are but few references in Shakespeare, 
but the few shew that the great dramatist had closely observed these beautiful 
objects. He knew of their metamorphoses, and says : 

There is a difference between a grub and a butterfly, yet your butterfly was but a grub. 

Coriolanus, Act V., sc. 5. 

In his choice of an adjective to describe their wicgs he could not have found 
a more appropriate word than he has in 

Men like butterflies 

Shew not their mealy wings, but to the summer. 

Troilus and Cressida, Aet III., sc. 3. 



81 



There is a charming suggestion of the shape of the butterfly's wings in Mid- 
summer Night's Dream, Act II., sc. 1, where Titania bids the fairies : 



•Pluck the wings from painted butterflies 



To fan the moon-beams from the sleeping eyes. 

(of the strange being with whom she is enamoured). 

An adjective that Shakespeare applies on two occasions to the butterfly is 
" gilded " : 

And laugh at gilded butterflies. 

King Lear, Act V., sc. 2. 
I saw him run after a gilded butterfly. 

Coriolanus, Act I., sc. 3. 

What particular species he is alluding to in these passages we cannot tell — 
probably to one of the Fritillaries, and possibly to the " High Brown " (Argynnis 
adippe). In connection with this insect Morris writes : — " It has been well 
observed that all the best and highest enjoyments of man are those which, com- 
ing as they do direct from the bounteous hand of the Omnipotent himself, are 
not purchasable with money or any other human commodity. Every aspect under 
which nature is viewed throws light upon this remark and gilds it with the 
unmistakable lustre of truth." The under side of the hind-wings of Adippe are 
gorgeous with their large silver spangles and their rusty red spots. The combi- 
nation of these as the insect flutters by certainly gives the idea of gilding. Other 
adjectives used by Shakespeare in relation to butterflies are " painted " (as above), 
and " summer " (Coriolanus, Act IV., sc. 6), both appropriate enough. 

To moths and their larvae we find many allusions. The canker-worm, 
especially aflbrded the poet many apt and beautiful comparisons. Several of these 
refer to love. Who is not familiar with the words of Viola in Twelfth Night 
telling of the effect of unrequited love upon health : 

She never told her love 

But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud 
Feed on her damask cheek. 

Act II., sc. 4. 

There is wisdom quaintly expressed in the advice given by the suspicious 
Laertes to his sister : 

The chariest maid is prodigal enough, 
If she unmask her beauty to the moon : 
Virtue itself 'scapes not calumnious strokes : 
The canker galls the infants of the spring, 
Too oft before their buttons be disclosed ; 
And in the morn and liquid dew of youth 
Contagious blastments are most imminent. 

Hamlet, Act I., sc. 3. 

In the Two Gentlemen of Verona we have a playful conversation upon the 
■effect of love upon the understanding : 

Valentine. — Love is your master, for he masters you : 
And he that is so yoked by a fool, 
Methinks should not be chronicled for wise. 
Proteus. — Yet writers say. As in the sweetest bud 
The eating canker dwells, so eating love 
Inhabits m the finest wits of all. 

Valoitine.—Aud writers say. As the most forward bud 

Is eaten by the cmkerere it blow, 

Even s ) by love the young a-nd tender wit 

Is turu'd to folly ; blasting in the bud, 

Losing his verdure even in the prime, 

And all the fair effects of future hopes. 

In another passage beautiful and pathetic grief " is the canker. The unhappy 
Constance speaks of her little son Arthur, who is in the toils of his wicked uncle 
John : 

But now will canker sorrow eat my bud 
And chase the native beauty from his cheek. 

King John, Act III. , sc. 4. 

6 (EN.) 



82 



In the 2nd Part of K. Henry VI. (Act I., sc. 2) the canker is "ambition." The 
Duke of Gloster, repljdng to his wife, says : 

O Nell, sweet Nell, if thou dost love thy lord, 
Banisli the canker of ambitious thoughts. 

In another part of the same play (Act HI., sc. 1) it is disappointment. The 
unfortunate Henry exclaims, when ill news comes from France : 

Thus are my blossoms blasted in the bud 
And caterpillars eat my leaves away. 

In Hamlet it is overwrought feeling. The gentle Ophelia, mourning for the 
strange behaviour of her lover, says (Act III., sc. 1) : 

And I, of ladies most deject and wretched, 
Tliat suck'd the honey of his music vows, 
Now see that noble and most sovereign reason. 
Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh 
That unmatched form and feature of blown youth, 
Blasted with ecstasy. 

And in Romeo and Juliet it is death : 

Two such opposed foes encamp them still 
In man as well as herbs, grace and rude will ; 
And, where the worser is predominant, 
Full soon the canker death eats up the plant. 

Other passages in which reference to the canker is made are Midsummer 
Night's Dream, Act III , sc. 2 ; 2nd Part of K. Henry lY., Act II., sc. 2, and Act 
IV., sc. 4; 1st Part of K. Henry VI., Act II., sc. 5 ; Coriolanus, Act IV., sc. 6 ; 
Romeo and Juliet, Act I., sc. I. 

In England the larva of one of the plume moths, Fterophorus rhododactylus, 
feeds in the buds of the rose. There is a variety of small moths that infest the 
blossoms, leaves and young shoots of the Queen of Flowers. Among them are : 



TiNEINA. 

Lampronta quadripunctella. 
Colophora gryphipennella. 



Geoivietrina. Tortricina. 

Articlea badiata. Antithesia cchroleucana. 

derivata. Pardia tripunctana. 

Cid&i'ia psittacata. Spilonota roborana. 

fulvata. " roscecolana. 

Hedya pauperana. 
Crcesia Bergmarmiana. 

" hol/niiana. 
Pei'onea taricgana. 

Of larvae that feed upon the flower-buds of the apple, one of the most destruc- 
tive is that of the Figure of Eight Moth (Diloha ceruleocephala), one of the Bom- 
byces. This insect is so destructive that it was called by Linnaeus, the " Pest of 
Pomona." The larvae of the Winter Moth (Cheimatobia hrumata) are also very 
injurious. Immediately after they are hatched they make their way to the 
unopened buds and burrow in them, concealing themselves from sight. The 
Green Pug {Eupithe..cio, rectangulata) is another objectionable insect: — "The 
larva feeding in the young buds of the apple-trees, devouring the stamens and 
pistils, and protecting itself by tying together the petals " {Btaintcrris Manual, 
Vol. II., p. 92). By the caterpillars of a tiny moth Hyponomeuta padellus, 
belonging to the Tineina, the apple-trees are not unfrequently entirely stripped 
of their foliage. Besides the insects already named, at least 15 species, belonging 
to the groups Tortricina and Tineina, infest the English orchards. 

In King Richard II., by a striking metaphor England is represented as a 
disordered garden, over-run with caterpillars (Act III , sc. 4). Twice the word 
" caterpillar " is used by Shakespeare as one of contempt ; in 1st Part of K. Henry 
IV., Act IL, sc. 2, and in 2nd Part of K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 4. 

I find the word moth " used three times : In the Merchant of Venice, 
Thus has the candle singed the moth," Act II., sc. 9 ; in Othello where Desde- 



83 



mona speaks of herself as a " moth of peace," Act I., sc. 3 ; and in Coriolanus^ 
" You would be another Penelope, yet they say all the yarn she spun, in Ul3''sses' 
absence, did but fill Ithaca full of moths," Act I., sc. 4, The reference in this last 
passage is probably to the tapestry moth. Tinea tapetzella. 

DiPTEKA. — The most numerous of Shakespeare's entomological allusions are 
to the two-winged flies. As a fitting image of littleness and meanness he makes 
use of the gnat, as where Simonides says that princes who are not given to hos- 
pitality : 

Are like to gnats which make a sound, but killed, 
Are wondered at. 

Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Act II., sc. 3. 

And where Biron mocking at the love-sick King of Navarre : 

me, with what strict patience have I sat 
To see a king transformed to a gnat. 

Love's labour's lost, Act IV., sc. 3. 

But the diminutive is used with much feeling and afiection, where Imogen, 
speaking of the departure of her banished lord, says : 

1 would have broke my eye-strings ; crack 'd them, but 
To look upon him ; till the diminution 

Of space had pointed him sharp as my needle. 
Nay, foUow'd him, till he had melted from 
The smallness of a gnat to air. 

"Cymbeline," Act I., sc. 4. 

There is knowledge both of human nature and of natural history, in the re- 
buke which Antipholus of Syracuse administered to Dromio of Syracuse. 

Because that I familiarly sometimes 

Do use you for my fool, and chat with you, 

Your sauciness will jest upon my love. 

And make a common of my serious hours. 

When the sun shines, let foolish gnats make sport. 

But creep in crannies, when he hides his beams. 

Comedy of Errors, Act II., sc. 2. 

The Flea (Pulex irritans) is spoken of in at any rate seven passages : — "Henry 
v.," Act II., sc. 3, and Act III., sc. 7 ; " Merry Wives of Windsor," Act IV./' sc. 
2 ; " Twelfth Night," Act III., sc. 4; " All's Well that Ends Well," Act IV., sc. 3 ; 
" Taming the Shrew," Act V., sc. 3, and 1st Part K. Henry IV., Act II., sc. 1 ; 
always in a trifling sense. 

Shakespeare's allusions to the breeze-fly or gad-fly of the ox {Tabanus 
hovinus) are forcible. In Troilus and Cressida Nestor, replying to Agamemnon, 
to illustrate the difference between " valour's show" and " valour's worth," says 
that in Fortune's 

ray and brightness 

The herd hath more annoyance by the brize 

Than by the tiger ; but when the splitting wind 

Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks, 

And flies flee under shade, why then the thing of courage 

As rous'd with rage, with rage doth sympathize. 

Act I., sc. 3. 

And in Antony and Cleopatra, Scarus cries out against the Egyptian Queen 
who was hastening from the fight off" Actium : 

Yon ribald-rid nag of Egypt 

The brize upon her like a cow in June 
Hoists sails and flies. 

Of the many allusions to flies made by Shakespeare, some are used in a 
slighting and contemptuous sense, as when Timon of Athens calls his false friends 

Most smiling, smooth, detested parasites, 
Courteous destroyers, affable wolves, meek bears. 
You fools of fortune, trencher frien.ds, time's flies. 

Act III., sc. 6. 



i 



84 



Or when La Pucelle says of the dead Talbot, whom Sir W. Lucy had en- 
quired for under many sounding titles : 

Here is a silly, stately style indeed ! 

The Turk, that two and fifty kingdoms hath, 

Writer not so tedious a style as this. — 

Him, that thou iriagnitiest, with all these titles, 

Stinking, and fly-blown, lies here at our feet. 

1st Part of K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 7. 

Occasionally the references are made vindictively, as when lago exclaims : 

" Call upon her father. 

Rouse him ; make after him, poison his delight. 
Proclaim him on the streets, incense her kinsmen, 
And though he in a fertile climate dwells. 
Plague him with flies." 

Othello, Act I, sc. 1. 

At one time the fecundity of flies in hot weather, affords the poet an apt 
simile to denote the fickle populace: 

Impairing Henry, strength'ning, mis-proud York, 
The common people swarm like summer-flies ; 
And whither fly the gnats but to the sun ? 
And who shines now, but Henry's enemies ? 

3rd Part of K. Henry VI., Act II., sc. 6. 

At another it serves to indicate excessive conceit. Biron says of " figures 
fantastical 

These summer flies 

Have blown me full of maggot ostentation. 

Love's Labour's Lost, Act V., sc. 2. 

Often the allusion has a tragic ring, as when poor blinded Gloster cries in 
his despair : 

As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods ; 
They kill us for their sport. 

King Lear, Act IV., sc. 1. 

And when, in Cymbeline Sicilius Leonatus, addressing Jupiter, says : 

No more thou thunder-master show 
Thy spite on mortal flies. 

Act v., sc. 4. 

Among the references to flies are two that show how closely Shakespeare 
had observed these insects. In K. Henry Y., Act Y., sc. l,he places in the mouth 
of the Duke of Burgundy the words : 

Like flies at Bartholomew-tide, blind, though 
They have their eyes ; and then they will endure handling. 
Which before would not abide looking on. 

St. Barfchtolemew's day comes on the 24th of August ; under the old style it 
would be September 4th, when the flies in the cool English autumn would be 
growing dull and sluggish. But an allusion shewing more close attention even 
than that is found in Othello, Act lY., sc. 2. 

0, ay, as summer flies are in the shambles, 

That quicken even in blowing. 

It is not every one who knows that the flesh-fly, Sarcophaga carnaria is 
ovo-viviparous ; but Shakespeare knew it. 

The sheep-tick, Melophagus ovinus is mentioned once in the plays. 

I would rather be a tick in a sheep than such a valiant ignorance. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act III., sc. 3. 

Other references to flies will be found in The Tempest, Act III., sc. 2 ; As 
You Like It, Act lY, sc. 1 ; Winter s Tale, Act lY, sc. 8 ; King John, Act lY, 
sc. 1 ; 2nd Part K. Henry IV., Act III., sc. 1 ; 2nd Part of K. Henry YL, Act I, 
sc. 2 ; Troilus and Cressida, Act II., sc. 3 ; Antony and Cleopatra, Act II., sc. 2 
and Act III., sc. 2 ; Cymbeline, Act lY., sc. 2 ; Titus Andronicus, Act III., sc. 2, 
and Act Y., sc. 2 ; Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Act lY, sc. 1, and Act lY., so, 4; 



85 



King Lear, Act IV., sc. 6 ; Romeo and Juliet, Act II., sc. 3, and Act II., sc. 4 ; 
Hamlet, Act II., sc. 2, Act IV., sc. 3, Act V.. sc. 1, and Act V., sc. 2, and Titus 
Andronicus, Act IV., sc. 1. 

CoLEOPTERA. — Shakespeare's allusions to beetles are very fine and telling. 
What can be more so than this : 

Ere to black Hecate's summons 
The shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hum 
Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done 
A deed of dreadfufnote. 

Macbeth, Act III., sc. 4. 

The expression " shard-borne," is not quite correct. The elytra of the beetle 
are uplifted during flight, it is true ; but the gauzy wings that ply beneath them 
are the sustaining and propelling instruments. What particular species of beetle 
(if any), Shakespeare had in his mind when he penned these words we cannot 
tell. The Dor-beetle, GeotrujJe^ stercorarius, is a striking object, and flies in the 
dusk, and may have attracted his attention. 

Scarcely less beautiful than the reference given above, is that to Lampyris 
noctiluca : 

The glow-worm shews the matin to be near 
And 'gins to pale his ineffectual fire. 

Ibid, Act I, sc. 1. 

Another fine passage is found in Measure for Measure, Act III., sc. 1. 

Dar'st thou die ? 

The sense of death is most in apprehension ; 
And the poor beetle, that we tread upon, 
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great 
As when a giant dies. 

Here, of course, the intention is not to give an increased idea of the pains of 
the beetle, but to make us think less of the death- throes of the giant — the giant 
suffers as little as the beetle. 

What a conception of depth is conveyed to us in the words : 

; How fearful 

And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low ! 

The crows and choughs that wing the midway air 

Show scarce so gross as beetles. 

King Lear, Act IV., sc. 6 

By Caliban in The Tempest, Act I., sc. 2, and by the fairies in Midsummer 
Night's Dream, beetles are spoken of as things to be dreaded. 

In the 2nd Part of King Henry IV., Act II., sc. 4, there is a very curious 
metaphor : 

His face is Lucifer's privy kitchen, 

Where he doth nothing but roast malt-worms. 

The malt-worms are the larvae of Tevebrio molitoi^ and Tenehrio ohscurus. 

Other references to beetles will be found in Midsummer Night's Dream, Act 
III, sc. 1 ; Taming of the Shrew, Act IV., sc. 1 ; Antony and Cleopatra, Act III., 
sc. 2 ; and Cymbeline, Act III., sc. 3. 

Hemiptera. — In the Merry Wives of Windsor, Act I., sc. 1, is an amusing 
play upon the word "luce." Slender exalting Robert Shallow, "Justice of 
the Peace and coram," and " cust-atorum," and "ratolorum," and "armigero" says: 

All his successors, gone before him, have done 't ; and all his ancestors that come after him, may ; 
they may give the dozen white luces in their coat. 

To which Sir Hugh Evans, the Welsh chaplain replies : 

The dozen white louses do become an old coat well, it agrees well passant ; it is a familiar beast to 
man, and signifies — love. 

The passage shews that Shakespeare had not forgotten his early escapade, 
and angry slur upon Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote : 

If lousy is lucy, as some folks miscall it, 
Then Lucy is lousy whatever befall it. 



86 



The " luce" is, of course, the fleur-de-lis, or flower-de-luce, and the " coat," 
Robert Shallow's coat of arms. In the association of the " familiar beast," with 
" love," we are reminded of the " lousy and lecherous" of one of our modern 
ballad-writers. 

Shakespeare makes at least eight allusions to the louse. One of them con- 
veys^^the strongest expression of contempt that can possibly be imagined : " I 
care not to be the louse of a lazar." {i. e, of a man afflicted with loathsome 
diseases). Troilus and Cressida, Act V., sc. 1. 

Orthoptera. — " Shall we be merry ?" asks Prince Henry in 1st Part of K. 
Henry IV., Act II., sc. 4, " As merry as crickets," answers Poins. The cheerful 
note of the cricket (Acheta domestica), produced by the rubbing together of the 
notched edges of the insect's upper wings, must have been a familiar sound to 
Shakespeare. When all is quiet around the hearth the note arises in many an 
English dwelling. But a very slight noise will startle the insect, and cause a 
cessation of its music. So the little Mamillius in a Winter's Tale, says that he 
will tell his story so softly, that " yon crickets shall not hear it," Act II., sc. 1. 

Amongst the equipments of Queen Mab is a whip of cricket bone." Romeo 
and Juliet, Act I., sc. 4. The " winter cricket" is spoken of in the Taming of the 
Shrew, Act IV., sc. 8. 

I find but one allusion to locusts — that made by lago when speaking of 
Othello and his countrymen. 

These Moors are changeable in their wills : —fill thy purse with money ; the food that to him now 
is as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. — Othello, Act I, sc. 3. 

The species mentioned here is doubtless (Edipoda migratorius, which often 
visits Morocco, and is used for food. 

The grasshopper is mentioned in Romeo and Juliet Act I., sc. 4, where the 
cover of Queen Mab's wagon is said to be made of the wings of grasshoppers. 

Arachnida. — In the Merchant of Venice we have an instance of the skill 
with which the great poet could draw, even from the work of a disgusting insect, 
a fitting illustration to enhance the attractions of an admired lady. 

Here, in her hair, 

The painter plays the spider, and hath woven 
A golden mesh, to entrap the hearts of men, 
Faster than gnats in cobwebs. 

Act III., sc. 2. 

A different kind of weaving is spoken of in the 2nd Part of K. Henry VI., 
Act III., sc. 1 : 

My brain more busy than the labouring spider 
. Weaves tedious snares to trap mine enemies. 

And in Othello, Act II., sc. 1, where lago says to himself, 

With as little a web as this 

Will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. 

And yet again in K. Henry VIII , Act, I., sc. 1, where it is said of Wolsey : 

Spider-like 

Out of his self-drawing web, he gives us note 
The force of his own merit makes his way. 

With wonderful eff'ecb Shakespeare makes use of the Spider in shewing the 
power of imagination. 

There may be in the cup 
A spider steep'd, and one may drink, depart, 
And yet partake no venom ; for his knowledge 
Is not infected : but if one present 
The abhorr'd ingredient to his eye, make known 
How he hath drank, he cracks his gorge, his sides, 
With violent hefts : — I have drunk and seen the spider. 

Winter's Tale, Act II., sc. 1. 



87 



In Troilus and Cressida, Act V., sc. 2, is a reference to Arachne. Arachne, 
according to the ancients, was the daughter of Idmon, a Lydian. She was a 
skilful spinner, and contended with Pallas. Defeated and chagrined, she hanged 
herself, and was turned into a spider. 

In King John, Act IV., sc. 3, Hubert suspected of murdering Prince Arthur, 
is told that 

The smallest thread, 
That ever spider twisted from her womb, 
Vv ill serve to strangle thee. 

Other passages referring to spiders may be found in Midsummer Night's 
Dream, Act II., sc. 3 ; King Richard II., Act III., sc. 2 ; King Richard III., Act 
I., sc. 2, and Act IL, sc. 4; Oymbeline, Act IV., sc. 2 ; King Lear, Act lY., sc. 6 ; 
Romeo and Juliet, Act I. sc. 4, and Act II., sc. 6. 

Scorpions are spoken of in Macbeth, Act III., sc. 4 ; 2nd Part of K. Henry 
VI., Act III., sc. 2 ; and Oymbeline, Act V., sc. 5. 

It is evident that Shakespeare, in his walks around Stratford and on the 
pleasant banks of Avon, had found food for reflection in the appearances and habits 
of the commoner insect tribes. His were the observing eye and the contempla- 
tive mind ; and with marvellous power he turned the knowledge of insect-life that 
he acquired to account, for the instruction and amusement of the men of his own 
day, and of after generations. He was one who could find 

Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

And we are happy in that he has, in so many instances, interpreted these 
tongues, translated these books, written down the sermons and pointed out the 
good for us. 



Enemies of the Grain Aphis. — Prof. H. Garman, Entomologist and Botan- 
ist of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, in a paper on the grain 
louse (Siphonophora avense) has the following to say about its natural enemies : 

The helplessness of plant lice makes them the prey of many predaceous and 
parasitic insects. A visit to infested wheat fields in June showed great numbers 
of these present among the lice. Undoubtedly the injury to grain was 
very much lessened by the work of these friends of ours, yet, as we have shown, 
lice still exist in the fields, and they are liable again to assume destructive 
numbers. 

Chief among the enemies of the grain louse are certain small, dark-coloured, 
four-winged flies, which belong to the same order as the common honey bee. 
These little flies deposit their eggs in the bodies of the plant lice, placing a single 
■egg in each louse, and from the eggs come small grubs which live in the interior of 
their host, finally emerging after its death as egg-laying flies. Grain lice infested 
with these grubs become swollen, assume a brown colour, and by some means are 
fastened to the plants, where they remain as empty skins after the parasite 
emerges. 

Small two-winged flies, about five-sixteenths of an inch long, with brassy 
brown thorax, and with the abdomen striped crosswise with black and yellow, 
also do good service in destroying the lice. They scatter their eggs among the 
colonies, and from these hatch greenish larvae, which destroy the lice by seizing 
them and sucking their juices. 

The lad}^ bugs in both larval and adult stages devour the lice bodily. Several 
species of these beetles were common in the fields, but the most conspicuous from 



88 



size and abundance, was the nine-spotted lady bag ( Goccinella 9-notata). It 
may be recognized by the arrangement of the nine black spots on the brown 
wing covers — four on each side, the ninth just behind the thorax and overlying 
the middle line. It is very nearly a half sphere in shape. The other species are 
like it in general shape, but differ in details of colour and markings. A small list 
of other insects which do more or less good in destroying the aphides could be 
given, but this will suffice to give an idea of the more abundant and useful of our 
insect friends. 

Birds have been thought to destroy the lice, but 1 have seen no evidence of 
their doing so. Most birds depend on larger insects, and it is only occasionally 
that the small species, such as warblers, eat plant lice of any kind. Excepting 
the Maryland yellow-throat, birds of this family rarely occur in our grain fields, 
so that we can hope nothing from their help. The English sparrow, with its 
clumsy beak and grain-eating propensity, certainly does no good in this direction. 



Experiments with Arsenites. — In the Bulletin of the Iowa Agricultural 
Experiment Station for August, 1890, Prof. Gillette gives an elaborate and inter- 
esting account of a series of experiments that he carried out for the purpose of 
testing the use of aisenites in the warfare against noxious insects. 

"Paris green, he says, was brought into prominence as an insecticide for the 
first time in this country in 1869, and London purple in 1877. Arsenious acid 
(white arsenic) was successfully used for the destruction of the Canker-worm as 
early as 1875 and is still frequently recommended for the destruction of insects. 
During these years the arsenites have arisen to the first rank as insect destroyers. 
They have been largely experimented with by entomologists and widely used by 
farmers and fruit-growers, and yet there is much difference of opinion as to the 
proportions in which each may by safely applied to different plants for the des- 
truction of insects. In fact a serious obstacle in the way of a more free and 
successful use of the arsenites has been their liability to injure tender foliage, 
even when applied very dilute. In the experiments of the past two seasons, 
herein reported, I have given much attention to the finding of some method of 
applying these poisons so as to prevent injury to foliage without lessening their 
effectiveness in destroying insect life, and the success met with in this direction 
has been most gratifying. I also give the results of experiments to determine rela- 
tive injuries to foliage from applications of the arsenites when freshly mixed and 
when allowed to stand a few days before being applied; to show the effect upon foli- 
age by adding paste or soap to arsenical mixtures ; to show the effects of sun, dew 
and rain upon foliage treated with arsenical mixtures ; to show whether or not 
it is practical and safe, so far as injurj^ to the plant is concerned, to mix the ar- 
senites with insecticides that kill by external contact ; and to show the effects of 
combining the arsenites with fungicides." 

After giving a detailed account of his various experiments, he arrives at the 
following conclusions : — 

" 1. The oldest leaves are most susceptible to injury from arsenical applica- 
tions. They often turn yellow and drop without showing the burnt spotted 
appearance* 

2. Dews, amd probably direct sunlight, increase the injuries done by the 
arsenites to foliage. 

* I have put in italics those conclusions that seem to me to be well proven from the experiments here 
reported. Concerning the others there is some doubt, and further experiments are necessary to determine 
positively the facts. 



89 



3. Leaves kept 'perfectly dry can hardly he injured by the arsenites, even 
when they are applied very abundantly. 

4. Applications made in the heat of the day and in the bright sunlight do 
not injure foliage more than when applied in the cool of the day. 

6. The only effect of a heavy rain or dashing shower folloiving an applica- 
tion of one of the arsenites is to lessen the injury to foliage. 

6. Leaves suffering from a fungous disease are more susceptible to injury 
than are healthy leaves. 

7. When freshly mixed and applied, London purple is most and white 
arsenic is least injurious to foliage. 

8. White arsenic in solution should not he used upon foliage without first 
adding lime, Bordeaux mixture or some other substance to prevent its injurious 
effects upon foliage. 

9. White arsenic, if ollowed to stand many days in tvater before being 
applied, will do far greater harm to foliage than if applied as soon as mixed 

10. Lime added to London purple or Paris green in luater greatly lessens 
the injury that these poisons would otherwise do to foliage. 

11. Lime added to a mixture of white arsenic in water will greatly in- 
crease the injury that this poison ivould otherwise do to foliage. Lf the arsenic 
is all in soliction, the lime ivitl then lessen the injury, as in the case of London 
purple or Paris green. 

12^ London purple (Paris green and white arsenic have not yet been 
tried) can be used, at least, eight or ten times as strong ivithout injury to foliage 
if applied in common Bordeaux mixture instead of tuater. 

13. The arsenites cannot by any ordinary method be successfully mixed in 
a kerosene emulsion. 

14. The arsenites mix readii}^ in resin compounds and do not seem to be 
more injurious to foliage than as ordinarily applied in water. 

15. The arsenites in strong soapy mixtures do considerably more damage 
to foliage than when applied in water only. 

16. The arsenites mix readily in carbonate of copper solution and do not 
seem to do more harm than when applied in water only. 

17. London purple in sulphate of copper solution does vastly more harm 
than when applied in luater only. • 



Honey Bees and Arsenicals used as Sprays. — Mr. H. 0. Kruschke, of 
Juneau county, Wisconsin, in the American Garden for January, 1890, p. 57, 
warns prospective sprayers that the first man caught applying arsenic to trees in 
full bloom will be prosecuted — reasoning that the spraying of such trees will result 
in the storage by the bees of poisoned honey, the consumption of which will be 
dangerous. 

In our Report for last year, (1889, page 87) we quoted from Insect Life an 
account from Prof. Webster of the spraying of fruit trees without any ill results 
to either bees or honey. " The prevailing belief," says Insect Life, " is, however, 
the other way, and cases are on record where serious destruction of bees has 
resulted from spraying. In the case of the apple, particularly, the application 
should not be made until the bloom has begun to fall, when no injury will be 



90 



likely to result. It was because of the possibility of danger that in the beginning 
we were very slow to recommend the wholesale spraying of orchards with the 
arsenical mixtures, but experience has shown here, as in other cases, judicious 
and cautious use is attended only with benefit, and that the possible harm is re- 
duced to such a minimum as to almost justify its being left out of consideration." 



Ant Hills and Slugs. — I have resorted to many expedients to get rid of 
the ant hills that disfigure my lawn and sometimes seriously injure plants and 
shrubs, and have finally succeeded in conquering them. I first hive them, — 
break up the nest pretty thoroughly and if it is near the roots of a plant draw as 
much of the debris as possible a little wa}^ from it and turn over it a large plant 
jar. The ants will promptly appropriate the jar, remove their larvae to it, and 
fill it with pellets of earth. I then drench this with kerosene emulsion reduced 
to a strength of 2 to 3 per cent., which will kill every ant thoroughly drenched 
with it. It is more destructive to them than pure kerosene, which does not 
adhere to them. In this way I have thoroughly conquered the ants. 

The rose slug and the currant worm I keep completely under by use of 
hellebore, a tablespoonful to a gallon of water, and forcing it violently among the 
foliage with a hydropult. Commencing in the spring before I can find a slug or a 
worm, and repeating the drenching once a week for three or four weeks, I can 
destroy them completely befgre they do any damage. On one hundred roses I 
was able this spring to find only two slugs, while the foliage of some common 
sorts I did not spray was completely destroyed. — [M. C. Read, Hudson, Ohio, 
n Insect Life. 



Good Insectivorous Birds. — The following birds are to be classed among 
the most helpful kinds in the general warfare against insects: Robins, for cut 
and other earth worms. Swallows, night-hawks and purple martins, for moth 
catchers. Pewees, for striped cucumber bugs. Wood thrushes and wrens, for 
cut worms. Cat birds, for tent caterpillars. Meadow larks, crows and wood- 
peckers, for wireworms. Blue-throated buntings, for canker worms. Black, red- 
winged birds, jays, pigeons, doves, and chippies — strawberry pests. Quail, for 
chinch bugs and locusts. Whip-poor-wills, for moths. Hawks, all night birds, owls, 
tanagers, black- winged summer red birds, etc. — curculios. There may also be 
mentioned the following insect pest destroyers : Indigo birds, nut crackers, fly 
catchers, chimney swifts, chipping and song^ sparrows, black birds, mocking birds 
and orioles. 

There is little doubt that for every bird which is injurious to fruit that is 
killed, there are a hundred killed that are beneficial. Of course the whole life of 
the bird must be considered, for very many are fruit eaters The only question 
is, does the bird, on the whole, do most damage or good ? 

The man who indiscriminately kills the birds in his orchard and berry patch 
is not fit to live, and he will surely lose more than he will gain even from a 
financial point of view. — Prairie Farmer. 



Resistance to cold by a Caterpillar. — Mr. Otto Dugger, St. Anthony 
Park, Minn., gives in Insect Life the following instance of resistance to extreme 
cold hj a caterpillar of the Dusky Spilosoma (>S^. fuliginosa, Linn) : — " December 
3, 1889. Found to-daj^ in a little depression of the soil a clear cake of ice, and 



91 



imbedded in it the larva of the above species. By means of a hot iron I separated 
a cube of ice with the inclosed larva, and took it to my office. The caterpillar 
was entirely and solidly inclosed by the ice ; no air-spaces could be detected 
among the hair. How long the caterpillar had been inclosed I could not say. 
Left the cube of ice in front of my window, where the temperature sunk for two 
days to 11° below zero. Later the weather moderated, and during the day a little 
ice would melt near the caterpillar, but never exposing it to the air. After being 
inclosed for fourteen days, I carefully melted the ice and removed the caterpillar 
to a piece of blotting paper. In less than thirty minutes the larva was crawling 
about, not injured in the least. Yet, to escape further cKperimentation, it has 
shown good sense and spun up, and transformed into a pupa, healthy to all 
appearances." 



Saw-fly Borer ly Wheat. — Prof. J. H. Comstock, Entomologist, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y., describes a new saw-fly working in wheat, known as 
Oephus pygmaeus, order Hymenoptera, of the family Tenthredinidae as follows 

An insect destructive to wheat, but previously unknown in this country, has 
appeared in considerable numbers on the Cornell University farm. I do not 
know of its occurrence anywhere else in this State ; but as it is extremely abun- 
dant here, it is doubtless spread over a considerable area. It was first observed 
in this locality two years ago by one of our students, the late Mr. S. H. Grossman 
while makinof an investiofation of wheat insects. Mr. Crossman's studies, how- 
ever, were sadly terminated before he had carried his investigations of this 
species very far ; and it has fallen to me to continue the work begun by him. 

On examining the stalks of wheat at harvest time by splitting them through- 
out their length, it was found that some of them had been tunnelled by an insect 
larva. This larva had eaten a passage through each of the joints so that it could 
pass freely from one end of the cavity of the straw to the other. In addition to 
tunnelling the joints they had also fed more or less on the inner surface of the 
straw between the joints ; and, scattered throughout the entire length of the cav- 
ity of the straw, except the smaller part near the head, were to be seen yellowish 
particles, the excrement of the insect. 

If infested straws be examined a week or ten days before the ripening of the 
wheat, the cause of this injury can be found at work within them. It is at that 
time a yellowish, milky- white worm* varying in size from 1-5 inch (5 mm.) to J 
inch (12 mm.) in length. The smaller ones may not have bored through a single 
joint ; while the larger ones will have tunnelled all of them, except, perhaps, the 
one next to the crround. 

As the grain becomes ripe the larva works its way towards the ground, and 
at the time of the harvest the greater number of them have penetrated to the root. 
Here in the lowest part of the cavity of the straw they make preparations for 
passing the winter, and even for their escape from the straw the following year. 
This last is done by cutting the straw circularly on the inside, nearly severing it 
a short distance, varying from one-half inch to one inch from the ground. If the 
wheat were growing wild, the winter winds would cause the stalk to break off at 
this point, and thus the insect after it had reached the adult stage in the following 
year could easily escape ; while but for this cut, it would be very liable to be 
imprisoned within the straw. But under ordinary circumstances the straw is 
cut by the reaper before it is broken "off at this point, and consequently that 
breaking off does not occur. If, however, there is a strong wind just before the 
harvest and after the straws have been cut in this manner by the insects, they 



92 



are very liable to break off ; the lodging of the grain may, therefore, be largely 
due to the injuries of this insect. In one field just before the harvest I observed 
a large number of isolated straws lying in a horizontal position ; there was not 
the general breaking down of the grain characteristic of wind and rain ; but 
distributed through the grain that was standing there was a large number of 
isolated straws that were lodged. A careful examination showed that this 
breaking down of the grain, in 45 per cent, of the cases, was directly due to the 
injuries of this insect. In many cases the straws had been broken off a consider- 
able distance above the ground, and before the larva had made the characteristic 
circular cut near the root. An examination of these straws showed that the 
larva had eaten all, or nearly all, of the softer inner part of the straw for a short 
distance, thus making a weak place which was easily broken. As a rule, how- 
ever, the larva obtains a greater part of its nourishment by tunnelling the joints 
of the straw and does not eat enough of the straw in any place to cause it to 
break until it makes the circular cut near the ground described above. 

After the circular cut has been made, the larva fills the cavity of the straw 
just below it for a short distance with a plug of borings. Between this plug and 
the lower end of the cavity of the straw there is a place measurmg about one- 
half inch in length (10 mm. to 15 mm.) It is here that the insect passes the 
winter. Immediately after cutting the straw and making this plug the larva 
makes a cocoon by lining the walls of this space with a layer of silk. This layer 
is thin but very firm and more or less parchment-like ; it can, however, be broken 
with slight difficulty, being somewhat brittle. 

Within this cocoon, which remains in the stubble after the grain is cut, the 
insect passes the winter, in the larval state. It changes to a pupa during March 
or April ; and sometime during the month of May the adult insect appears. 

The exact date of the appearance of the insect depends upon the nature of 
the weather. This year from pupse collected on the 23rd of April and brought 
into the Insectary, the adults emerged from the 8th to the 10th of May ; while- 
the insects left in the fields were ten days later in emerging. 

The adult insect is a four- winged fly belonging to the order Hymenoptera, 
the order that includes the bees, wasps and ants ; and it is a member of the family 
Tenthredinidae of this order, a family comprising the insects commonly known 
as saw-flies. This popular name refers to the fact that in this family the female 
insects are furnished with a more or less saw-like organ. This arises near the 
caudal end of the body, and is the ovipositor. By means of it the insects are 
able to make incisions in the tissues of plants for the reception of their eggs. 

In the Canadian Entomologist, 1890, p. 40, Mr. Harrington records the 
occurrence of this insect at Ottawa, Ont., and also at Buffalo, N. Y. 



The Habits of a Ground-Hornet. — Stizns speciosus is the largest native 
ground-hornet, and its formidable appearance and great activity generally secure 
it undisputed possession of the square rod where it happens to alight. It is from 
an inch to an inch and one half in length ; the head and thorax are brown and 
the abdomen is black with six irregular yellow blotches. These markings are 
discernible as it flies swiftly about its business and give it a particularly tiger 
like appearance. It seems to be afraid of nothing, and if you walk near its 
burrow it flies with a menacing buzz in circles about you, and its brown, black 
and yellow body gleams in the sunlight. 

In constructing its burrows it usually selects a country road side or a dry 
barren hill, where a freedom from roots makes digging less laborious. 



93 



On the hill back of Richmond village, on Staten Island, I have seen them 
carrying heavy harvest flies to these burrows, several of which are dug there 
nearly every summer. The task of carrying so great a burden as a Cicada is a 
particularly laborious one, and they do not fly very fast when thus heavily laden. 
Sometimes they drag the harvest-flies a distance along the ground, and sometimes 
they resort to an ingenious method to finally get them to their burrows. 

In August, 1889, I observed a Stizus carrying a Cicada and flying slowly up 
a hill side. It lit at the base of a black birch on the hill top, and dragged the 
harvest-fly, holding the smooth dorsal surface to the bark, to the topmost branches 
finally disappearing among the leaves. I did not see it leave the tree, for I was 
unable to command a view on all sides at the sa ne time, and tlien there was a 
neighboring birch whose branches interlocked with the one where the hornet was. 
I satisfied myself that it did leave, by climbing up and violently shaking the 
branches and tree top, Stizus employs this method of transporting the heavy- 
Cicada ; it climbs the tree with the insect, and then flies from the branches, the 
-excessive weight gradually bringing it to the ground again but nearer to its 
burrow. 

Professor Morse, in his annual address before the American Association in 
1887, notices the following : — Dr. Thomas Meehan describes a hornet that was 
gifted with great intelligence. He saw this insect struggling with a large locust 
in unsuccessful attempts to fly away with it. After several fruitless efforts to 
fly up from the ground with his victim, he finally drascged it fully thirty feet to 
a tree, to the top of which he laboriously ascended, still clinging to his burden, 
and having attained this elevated position he flew off" in a horizontal direction 
with the locust." 

Commenting upon this, Mr. C. G. Rockwood, jr., in Science for August 19th, 
1887, gives an account of a large insect evidently of the wasp family, that carried 
■a Cicada for a distance of twenty feet up a maple tree and then flew away with 
it as described above. 

Wishing to ascertain the relative weights of these insects, I had dried speci- 
mens, including pins, weighed in a druggist's scales. Cicada tihicen weighed 
thirteen grains and Stizus speciosus seven and one half. — W. T. Davis, Tompkins- 
ville, Staten Island, N. Y. 



EXPERIMENTS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CHINCH BUGS. 

BY PROF. F, H. SNOW, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LAWRENCE. 

These experiments have been continued through the two seasons of 1889 
and 1890 and have been remarkably successful. As entomologist to the Kansas 
State Board of Agriculture I had prepared an article for the annual meeting of 
that Board in January, 1889, stating what was known at that time upon the 
subject, and calling attention to the investigations of Professors Forbes, Burrill 
and Lugger. In June, 1889, a letter was received from Dr. J. T Curtiss, of 
Dwight, Morris County, Kansas, announcing that one of the diseases mentioned 
in the article (Entomophthora) was raging in various fields in that region, and 
stating that in many places in fields of oats and wheat the ground was fairly 
white with the dead bucrs. Some of these dead bugs were at once obtained and 
experiments were begun in the entomological laboratory of the University. It 
was found that living healthy bugs, when placed in the same jar with the dead 



94 



bugs from Morris County, were sickened and killed within ten days. A Lawrence 
newspaper reporter learning of this fact published the statement that any 
farmers who were troubled b}' chinch-bugs might easily destroy them from their 
entire farms by sending to me for some diseased bugs. This announcement was 
published all over the country, and in a few days I received applications from 
Agricultural Experiment Stations and farmers in nine different States, praying 
for a few " diseased and deceased " bugs with which to inoculate the destroying 
pests with a fatal disease. Some fifty packages were sent out during the season 
of 1889, and the results were in the main highly favorable. It was my belief 
that sick bugs would prove more serviceable in the dissemination of disease than 
dead bugs. I accordingly sent out a circular letter with each package, instruct- 
ing the receiver to place the dead bugs in a jar for 48 hours, with from ten to 
twenty times as many live bugs from the field. In this way the disease would 
be communicated to the live bugs in the jar. These sick bugs being deposited 
in difierent portions of the field of experiment would communicate the disease 
more thoroughly while moving about among the healthy bugs by which they 
would be surrounded. This belief was corroborated by the results. This disease 
was successfully introduced from my laboratory into the States of Missouri, 
Nebraska, Indiana, Ohio and Minnesota, and into various counties of the State 
of Kansas. A report of my observations and experiments in 1889 has been 
published in the transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, vol. XII., pp. 
34-37, also in the report of the proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Kansas- 
State Board of Agriculture in January, 1890. 

The next point to be attained was the preservation of the disease through 
the winter, in order that it might be under my control and be available for use 
in the season of 1890. To accomplish this result, I placed fresh healthy bugs in 
the infection jar late in November 1889, and was pleased to note that they con- 
tracted disease and died in the same way as in the earlier part of the season. I 
was not able to obtain fresh materi'al for the purpose of testing the vitality of the 
disease germs in the spring of 1890, until the month of April, and then only a 
limited supply of live bugs could be secured. I quote the following from my 
laboratory notes : 

April 10 : twenty-five chinch-bugs that had hibernated in the field were put in the infection jars. 
They were supplied with young wheat plants. The bugs appeared lively and healthy. 

April 16 : some of the bugs were dead and all appeared stupid. 

April 20 : all of the bugs were dead. 

One week later, a new supply of fourteen bugs was put into the jar ; they were supplied with growing 
wheat. They ran substantially the same course as the first twenty-five. Some had died at the end of the 
first week and all were dead by the end of the thirteenth day. 

The chinch-bug seemed to have been very generally exterminated in Kansas 
in 1889, and only three applications for diseased bugs were received in 1890 up to 
the middle of July. On account of the limited amount of infection material on 
hand, I required each applicant to send me a box of live bugs, which I placed in 
the infection jars, returning in a few days a portion of the sick bugs to the 
sender. The three applicants above noted reported the complete success of the 
experiments. I give the following letter from Mr. M. F. Mattocks, of Wauneta^ 
Chautauqua County, Kansas : 

Wauneta, Kansas, July 7, 1890. 

Dear Sir :— I received from you a few days since, a box of diseased chmch-bugs. I treated them 
according to instructions, and I have watched them closely, and find that they have conveyed the disease 
almost all over my farm, and bugs are dying at a rapid rate. I have not found any dead bugs on farms 
adjoining me. I here enclose you a box of healthy bugs that I gathered 1^ miles from my place ; I do- 
not think they are diseased. Yours, M. F. Mattocks. 



95 



I also quote the following clipping from the Cedar Vale (Chautauqua Co.) 
Star : 

Infecting Chinch-Bugs. — There is no longer any need of having our crops deetroyed by chinch-bug.s. 
A remedy that is sure as death and costs nothing, has been discovered and is used in this country with 
complete success. Mr. M.F. Mattocks, living a mile and a half east of Wauneta, on the H. P. Moser 
farm, is entitled to the credit of demonstrating in this part, the efficiency of the remedy. He vi'as about to 
lose his corn crop by the bugs that were swarming into it from the stubble. He sent to Chancellor F. H. 
Snow, of the State University at Lawrence, and from him received a box containing a half-dozen 
diseased bugs. With them he exterminated a forty acre field full of the pests. They have died by the 
millions, in fact, they have about all died from the infection of those six bugs. A little circular of 
instructions, which he followed out, came with them. The six bugs were placed in a bottle with three 
or four hundred from the field, and were left together thirty-six hours and then turned loose, both the 
living ones and the dead, in the field. Devastation followed, and Mr. Mattocks will be troubled no more 
with chinch-bugs this year. If your crop is in danger you can save it by the same means of getting 
the diseased bugs in your field. It will cost you nothing and is a dead sure remedy. He has been 
sending dead and infected bugs to others in the country and to Prof. Snow, whose supply was running 
down. 

I personally visited Mr. Mattocks's farm and verified the above statements. 

The difficulty of obtaining enough live bugs to experiment with in the 
laboratory led to the sending out of the following advertisement, which was sent 
out to twenty prominent papers with requests for its publication : 

WANTED ! CHINCH-BUGS ! 

Prof. F. H. Snow, of the University of Kansas, is in great need of some live and healthy chinch- bugs 
with which to carry on his experiments in chinch-bug infection. Anyone who will send a small lot of bugs 
to Prof. Snow, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, will confer a favor on the investigator, and, it 
is hoped, on the farmers of Kansas. 

This request for live bugs was given wide circulation and resulted in keeping 
the laboratory fairly well supplied with material for experiment. 

Before the close of the season of 1890, it became evident that there were at 
least three diseases at work in our infection jars, the " white fungus " (Ento- 
mophthora or Empusa), a bacterial disease (Micrococcus), and a fungus considered 
by Dr. Roland Thaxter to be Isaria or perhaps more properly Trichoderma. 

The following report which describes the bugs as " collecting in clusters " 
points to the bacterial disease as the cause of destruction : 

PiQUA, Woodson Co., Kansas, 7th December, 1890. 
Dear Sir.— Since writing you from Humboldt, Ks., the 6th inst., I have made the happy discovery 
that the germs of contagious diseases sent me were vital. On Sunday last upon examination of the millet 
field I found millions of dead bugs. They were collected in clusters. My idea is that dampness facili- 
tates the spread of the contagion. The first distribution of diseased bugs two days after I received the 
package by mail apparently produced no results. A part of them were retained in the infection jar 
(quart Mason fruit jar) ; half a pint of bugs were collected from the field ; three days later a foul stench 
was found to emanate from the jar, and a part of the bugs in it were dead. On July 3rd I took advantage 
of the cool damp evening and took a few buckets of cold water and sprinkled the edge of the millet and 
distributed more infected bugs. On the 6th I found millions of dead bugs. I think the night and sprinkl- 
ing the millet caused the disease to spread. We have had no rain in this neighborhood since June 17th, 
if I remember correctly. The depredations of chinch-bugs are always more serious in dry, hot weather! 
You have conferred a lasting benefit on the farming interests of the United States, the value of which can- 
not be estimated in dollars and cents. It was estimated that during one of the visitation years of this 
insect the damage in the Mississippi valley amounted to ten millions of dollars. I have no doubt that by 
a proper manipulation of the contagious disease in the hands of intelligent persons it will prove an effective 
remedy. I think the contagion should be introduced among them early to prevent the migration of the 
young brood. In my case I received it too late. Early sown millet presents a favorable place to infect 
the bugs, as they seem to collect in the shade and die. Hoping that when the next Legislature meets 
an appreciative public will suitably reward you for your beneficient discovery, I am gratefully vours J 

W. jr. McCORMICK. J J -5 • 

The field experiments were apparently equally successful in the months of 
July, August and September. The following August field-report is inserted as a 
fair sample of the manner in which the farmers themselves regard these experi- 
ments : 

Florence, Marion Co., Kansas, November 1st, 1890 
Dear Sir.— On the 20th of August (I think it was) I wrote to you to send me some infected chinch 
bugs, and on the 30th of the same month you sent me a small lot of infected bugs, I sui p( -e about 
*?i?'*^y in all. I then put with these about twenty times as many healthy ones and' kept thun frrtv- 
eight hours, and then deposited them in and through my field~I have about 55 acres under cultivation 



96 



At the time I wrote for bugs my place was all iu corn and a very large crop of chinch bugs. I am safe in 
saying that there were more bugs on niy farm than on any two farms with the same amount of land under 
cultivation. At the time of sending to you for bugs I told two of my neighbors of my intention, and 
they laughed at the idea, nevertheless I sent. When I put them in my field it had rained fully a half 
day, and after noon I commenced to place them about in different places in my field. I noticed no change 
in the bugs for three days, it being cold. On the fourth and fifth days the weather was more warm, and it 
was then that the destruction of the enemy commenced with great satistaction to myself and great surprise 
to mylaughing neighbors. One of my neighbors, Mr. (leorge Winchester, said that there ought to be a sub- 
scription raised and donated to me. I told him not to me but to you the praise belonged. I thmk that 
it took about eight days after the five from the time that I placed them iu my field before they were all 
destroyed. The fifth day after I put out the diseased bugs I noticed that a great many bugs were flying 
away from my place. I cannot say if the disease spread in this way or not, or if it spread at all. Three 
or four persons said they would come atiu i^rocure of me some of the dead bugs, but no one came. This 
much I can say, with, me this experiment lius been a complete success. It has done me a great deal of good. 
I cannot give it a money value, but am satisfied that had it not been for the infected bugs obtained of you 
that I would have lost twenty-seven acres of wheat and eight acres of rye, and when I wrote to y..u for 
bugs I then contemplated putting out considerable wheat, and I was at that time considerably tr. ubled 
about the bugs in my corn, thinking that if I put out any wheat at all it would be destroyed by bugs ; but 
thanks to you my wheat is now safe from bugs, at least those that were on my place before sowij.g my 
wheat. I only wish that I had written to you sooner than this. I will send hy express one bottle of 
bugs that I gathered after they commenced to die. Respectfully yours, John Knoble. 

The following report from R. L. Stangaard is inserted as being of a more 
scientifically circumstantial character than most of the other reports : 

Florence, Kan., Aug. 22nd, 1890. 
Dear Sib.— In reply to your favor of July 27th, I would say that infected bugs were applied, after 
they were kept with live ones about forty-two hours. Most of the bugs mixed were dead when taken out 
of the box. They were applied in seven different hills, being put into every ninth hill. I marked every 
hill with a number so as to be better able to watch the progress. Examined after forty-eight hours ap- 
plication with the following results : — No. 1, mostly dead. No. 2, bugs mostly alive, seemingly very rest- 
less. No. 3, bugs seem to be sick. No. 4 bugs mostly dead. On hills around this one bugs seem to be 
restless. No. 5, not examined. On hills around it the bugs seem to be sick. Examination eight days 
after application with the following results :— No. 3, bugs seemingly in a dying condition. On the hills 
around it the bugs seem to be well with exception of one hill where they seem to be dying and some dead. 
No. 1, not a live bug in the hill. No. 5, apparently dying, also dying iu the hills around this. No. 6, bugs 
dying in hill. No. 7, apparently not dying. Qn August 16th, twelve days after application, I found the 
bugs to be dying and dead all through the field— twelve acres. On August 20th, I again found the bugs 
to be dying rapidly. A field being forty rods distant had sure marks of bugs in a dying condition. What I 
mean by bugs being in a dying condition is this : they lay on their backs, almost motionless, and others 
lay in same position, moving limbs violently. This remedy was applied on A. G. Rosiere's farm on Bruno 
creek, Marion Co., Kansas, being nine miles east and three miles south of Marion. Thanking you for your 
avors, I remain, yours truly, K. L. Stangaaed. 

The laboratory experiments have been continued through the season. Of 
the three diseases identified, that produced by the Trichoderma appears to be 
less fatal than the other two, as is indicated by the following laboratory notes : 

September 28th, dead chinch-bugs showing no signs of fungus externally were taken from the in- 
fection jars and crushed on a glass slide in distilled water. Oval hyphal bodies of a fungus (Trichoderma) 
were found in considerable number. These were put under a bell jar. 

September 29th, some of the hyphal bodies had put out slender mycelial growths ; others in im- 
mense numbers were multiplying by division. 

October 1st, the hyphal bodies were still multiplying by division. The mycelial growths had become 
much longer and in some instances had variously branched. 

October 3rd, a dead chinch-bug taken from an infected field was crushed on a glass slide in distilled 
water. Both round and oval hyphal bodies were found in considerable numbers. The sewere put under a 
bell jar to prevent dying. 

October 4tb, both round and oval hyphal bodies were multiplying by division and were putting out 
mycelial growths. 

October 5th, fresh chinch-bugs from an uninfected field were immersed in the liquid containing the 
above fungi and were put in a new jar with young corn plants. 

October 16th, many of the bugs were dead ; the others apparently lively. The dead bugs were found 
to contain hyphal bodies similar to those with which they were infected. A live chinch-bug from the same 
jar was crushed and found to contain round hyphal bodies; but these refused to germinate. 

November 5th, not all of the bugs are yet dead. The few remaining are apparently lively. 

The following is a summary of the results of the field experiments in the 
season of 1890 : 

Number of boxes of diseased bugs sent out, 38. Seven of these lots were 
either not received, or received and not used. Reports were received from 2G of 



97 



the 31 remaining cases. Of these 26 reports, 3 were unfavorable, 19 favorable, 
and 4 doubtful, concerning the success of the experiment. These doubtful cases 
are not to be looked upon as unfavorable, but more evidence is needed to transfer 
them to the list of favorable reports. These 19 out of 26 reports, or 73 per cent., 
were decidedly favorable. The experiments will be continued during the season 
of 1891. 

In presenting this paper I wish to acknowledge the invaluable aid continu- 
ally received during the progress of the work from my assistants, Messrs. W. C. 
Stevens and V. L. Kellogg. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Butterflies of North America. Third Series — Part X. By W. H. Edwards. 

The last part of Mr. Edwards's superb work has just come to hand. It is of 
exceptional beauty and interest. Special attention has been lately called to the 
American species of the genus Argynnis, by the publication of Mr. H. J. Elwes's 
"Revision of the genus Argynnis." (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1889. Part IV.) 
and Mr. Edwards's Notes " thereon (^Can. Ent. XII. p. 82.) The present number 
contains plates and descriptions of three species of this genus, the validity of 
two of which has been questioned by Mr. Elwes. Plate I. illustrates the com- 
plete life history of A. Alcestis by which it is shown that not only is it distinct 
in the imago state from both Ai^hrodite and Cipris but also in its preparatory'- 
stages. 

Plate II. Argynnis Adiante (male and female). This is a local Californian 
species of which Mr. Elwes had only male specimens taken many years ago — from 
what material he had he was inclined to regard it as merely a variety of either Zerene 
or Monticola. It appears, however, that it is not such a rare species as he 
supposed, and Mr. Edwards had ample material to show that this species is valid. 
The male is figured from Dr. Boisduval's actual type. Dr. Behr, the well-known 
San Francisco lepidopterist, writes of it that it is common in its season at the 
proper locality, and further that unlike many Californian Argynnides it is very 
constant. On the same plate as A. Adiante is figured another interesting species A. 
Atossa (n. sp.) the male of which has been in Mr. Edwards's collection for twenty 
years ; but the female was only discovered in 1889. From the figure it appears 
to be very distinct from anything we have in our fauna. 

Plate III. shows Scdyrodes Canthus in great detail. The text of this plate 
is very complete. Mr. Edwards has adopted Mr. Scudder's genus for this species 
but believes the name Eurydice does not belong to it. — J. F. 



The Cave Fauna of North America, with remarks on the Anatomy of the 
Brain and Origin of the Blind Species. By A. S. Packard, M.D. Vol. IV. ; 
First Memoir — National Academy of Sciences. 4to., pp. 156. 

The author of this admirable volume is everywhere known throughout the 
scientific world from his numerous works, especially on entomology, and has 
obtained a deservedly high reputation in Europe as well as in America. This 
reputation will, we are confident, be, if possible, enhanced by the elaborate mono- 
graph before us. It contains many original observations of cave animals, some 
careful scientific investigations, and a very interesting chapter of philosopaic 

7 (en.) 



98 



considerations. It is also fully illustrated by a map of the Mammoth Cave in 
Kentucky, a number of wood cuts and a series o£ twenty-seven beautiful litho- 
graphs, nearly all of them drawn by the author himself. The work begins with 
a description of the Mammoth Cave and others in the neighbourhood, and gives 
lists of the various animals found within them ; an account of the Wyandotte 
and other caves in Indiana, Clinton's Cave in Utah, and one in Colorado ; a 
discussion of the geological age of the caves and their inhabitants, the mode of 
colonization and the source of their food-supply. The second chapter describes 
the vegetable life of the caves, which is naturally of the most meagre description. 
Then follows a systematic description and list of the invertebrate animals found 
in North American caves, among which spiders are the most numerous. Insects 
are represented by eight species of Thysanura, four of Orthoptera, two of 
Platyptera, ten of Coleoptera and nine of Diptera — a by no means extensive 
list, but one that includes some very curious and interesting forms. The beetles 
of the genus Anophthalmus are especially remarkable and attractive to the 
ordinary entomologist. Lists are also given of the European and North American 
cave animals, and of the blind, eyeless creatures which do not live in caves, and 
which, strange to say, almost equal in number their cavernous relatives. The 
next chapter gives a careful account of the anatomy of the brain and eyes (when 
partly developed) of certain blind Arthropods. The chief interest of the work 
culminates in the final chapter where the author discusses the origin of the cave 
species as bearing upon the theory of evolution. We have not space for any 
abstract of his views, which are well-deserving of study, but must refer the 
reader who desires fresh evidence on the subject of evolution to the work itself. 
We entirely agree with the author in his closing words : " In the case of too many 
naturalists the dogma or creed of natural selection has tied their hands, obscured 
their vision, and prevented their seeking by observation and experiment to 
discover, so far as human intelligence can do so, the tangible, genuine, efficient 
factors of organic evolution." — c. J. s. B. 



American Spiders and their Spinning Work. A natural history of the Orb- 
weaving Spiders of the United States, with special regard to their Industry 
and Habits. By Henry C. McCook, D.D. Vol. I. Published by the Author, 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1889. 4to., pp. 372. 

The author of this sumptuous volume is so well known from his valuable 
and interesting works on the natural history of various kinds of ants, and his 
charming little book " The Tenants of an old Farm," that any productions of his 
pen are looked forward to with lively anticipation and keen interest. We are 
quite sure that no one of the subscribers to this, his latest and greatest work, 
has been in the least degree disappointed by this first volume of the promised 
three. Though spiders are not insects, we have no doubt that every entomolo- 
gist, and indeed every lover of natural history in any of its departments, will 
deeply enjoy the perusal of this volume. W^e cannot give a better idea of its 
contents than by mentioning the subjects treated of. They are, first, the general 
classification, structure and spinning organs of spiders ; the construction and 
armature of Orbweavers' snares ; the characteristic forms and varieties of snares ; 
unbeaded orbs and spring snares; the engineering and mechanical skill and 
intelligence of spiders ; their modes of procuring food and habits in feeding ; 
their fangs and poison bags ; their modes of nest making and its development in 
various tribes ; and finally the "genesis of snares." All these different subjects 
are fully illustrated with more than three hundred and fifty wood cuts. The 
second volume is to treat of the mating and maternal instincts, the life of the 



99 



young, the distribution of species, etc. ; and the third will be devoted to descrip- 
tions of the orb weaving fauna of the United States, with coloured illustrations 
of a number of species. The whole will form one of the most complete works 
of the kind in the English language. Entomologists will need to have long 
purses if they wish to possess all the literature of the day, and to procure for 
themselves such costly and beautiful books as Scudder's and Edwards's Butter- 
flies and McCook's Spiders. We trust that all who can possibly afford it will aid 
the authors in their self-sacrificing enterprises by subscribing for their books, but 
those who cannot do so should use their influence with their local Scientific 
Societies and Public Libraries and induce those in charge to purchase these 
valuable works for the general benefit. We are glad to say that the Public 
Library in Toronto and our Entomological Society have set a good example in 
this respect and rendered these works available for many of our readers. — c. J. s. B 



Report on Insect and Fungus Pests. No. I. By Henry Tryon, Assistant 
Curator of the Queensland Museum. Published by the Department of 
Agriculture, Brisbane, Australia, 1889. 1 Vol., 8vo., pp. 238. 

We have perused with great interest this first work that we have seen on 
the Economic Entomology of Australia. Some of the pests referred to are very 
familiar to us here, for instance, the Codling Moth and the Woolly Aphis of the 
apple tree, while others are species closely allied to those which are very destructive 
with us. The report takes up different fruits, vegetables and field crops that 
are most commonly cultivated in the colony, and describes the insects which 
especially attack them ; as far as possible the life history of each pest is given 
and remedies are suggested. The work is very carefully and thoroughly done, and 
will, no doubt, be of great value to the fruit growers and farmers in that part of 
the world. Its usefulness would of course be greatly enhanced by illustrations oi 
the insects treated of, but evidently there were difficulties in the way of procuring 
these that could not at first be overcome. Future reports will doubtless be made 
popular in this way. The author deserves much credit for the valuable book he 
has produced. We trust that the Queensland Government will give him all the 
assistance and encouragement possible in the prosecution of his studies in prac- 
tical entomology, and enable him to continue a work that is of the utmost 
economic importance. — c. J. s. B. 



The Butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon. By Lionel de Niceville, 
Calcutta. -Vols. 124-503 pp. 6 pi. 1890. 8o. 

Some three years or more ago, we noticed a work on the above subject by 
Marshall and de Nicdvilie, of which two volumes had been published, the last by 
de Niceville alone. A third volume of over 500 compact pages has just come 
to hand, the most notable thing about which, at least to a dweller in temperate 
regions, is that it is wholly concerned with the Lycaenid?e, of which eighty- two 
genera and over four hundred species are described. Such wealth in these pigmies 
among butterflies is a striking fact. The author, however, beyond the generic 
collocation has made no attempt to classify this immense assemblage, contenting 
himself with only distinguishing certain groups of genera by the name of one 
of the included genera, as the " Thecla group," etc., which groups are character- 
ised in a general but not formal way in the body of the work. These agree 
tolerably well with the groups Doherty had previously characterised from the 
egg alone, but are about twice as numerous and are established mainly upon the 



100 



structural features of the imago. This is better than Distant's artificial divisions 
but there is plainly an open field here for investigation, and one which there is 
apparentl}^ no need for great delay in occupying, since (excepting the egg) the 
early stages of Lycaeninae appear to offer less service to the systematist than in 
any other group of butterflies. 

What will surprise one in this volume, is the very considerable addition to 
our knowledge of the early stages of the Lycaeninae, for excepting the Hesperidse 
this group is in general the least known of butterflies. Yet something is 
recorded of no less than thirty-four genera, much of it new, and in many a good 
deal of interesting histor}^ is related. This is a great improvement on the 
preceding volumes. One particular case, that of the pomegranate butterflies, whose 
history was briefly and partially given by Westwood, seems valuable enough 
to reprint for the benefit of American readers ; and another, Curetis thetis, may 
well be mentioned here : — " The twelfth segment [of the larva] bears two most 
extraordinary structures, which consist of two diverging, cylindrical, rigid pillars, 
arising from the subdorsal region and of a pale green color. When the insect 
is touched or alarmed, from each pillar is everted a deep maroon tentacle as long 
as the rigid pillar, bearing at its end long parti-coloured hairs, the basal third of 
each hair being black, the upper two-thirds white. The maroon tentacle with 
its long hairs spread out like a circular fan or rosette is whirled round with great 
rapidity in a plane parallel to the body, its use being almost certainly to frighten 
away its enemies, as this larva, as far as I am aware, is not attended by protecting 
ants and lacks the honey-gland on the eleventh segment present in so many 
lycsenid larvae which are aflfected by ants." 

Ants have been found attendant upon half a dozen genera, and in many 
cases they have been identified by Dr. A. Forel, of Switzerland. At least a dozen 
species are concerned, and they are about equally divided between the Formicidae 
and Myrmicidae. 

Spalgis, it appears, is another instance of a carnivorous lycaenid comparable 
to our Feniseca, the larva associating with and feeding upon the " mealy bug " 
of the planters, a species of Dactylopius. De Nic^ville in no way favours 
Edwards's belief that Feniseca belongs to the Lemoniinae, and adds nothing, as 
we had hoped he might be able to do, to Holland's suggestions that Liphyra, too, 
might be carnivorous, though he points out that the two genera differ in their 
perfect state in the number of subcostal nervules, and are therefore not so closely 
allied as Dr. Holland thought. 

The seasonal dimorphism of many Indian Lycaenidae is well brought out, the 
dry and wet season taking the place of our spring and summer ; indeed, it occurs 
in no less than eighteen genera, and this will be a revelation to many, and seems 
to bid fair to renovate the study of tropical butterflies. But while in India 
proper " the seasonal forms seem to be chiefly restricted to two, a wet and a 
dry," in the Himalayan district of Sikkim " the dry season form which occurs 
at the end of the year differs somewhat from the dry season form which occurs 
in the spring, so that with regard to some species there may be said to be three 
forms — a spring, a wet season, and a winter form." Sexual dimorphism on the 
contrary is very rare among tropical Lycaenidae, de Niceville stating that he 
does not know positively of any case, though he suspects it in a species of 
Zephyrus. On the authority of Doherty (a native of Cincinnati by the way, 
working most industriously in the east), he credits half a dozen or more species 
as mimicking others of the same or neighboring groups of Lycaenidae. Much 
attention is also paid to the secondary sexual characteristics so far as their gross \ 
appearances are concerned, and they are noted in no less than nineteen genera. 



101 



Finally, we may call attention to the very interesting general chapter on the 
Lycaenidae at the beginning of the volume, which is of more than usual interest 
and rather exceptional in a work of this kind. The work itself must serve a 
very useful purpose ; its execution is remarkably even and shows great skill and 
balance on the part of the author. There are half a dozen plates like those of 
the former volumes and executed by the same parties, excepting that two of 
them are chromo-lithographs, but we could wish that some plates of the early 
stages might have been added, and the direct purposes of the book for the Indian 
student would have been served by others giving structural details. — s. H. s. 



Manual of Injurious Insects and Methods of Prevention. By Eleanor 
A. Ormerod, Second Edition, 1890. 

The enlarged and thoroughly revised edition of Miss Ormerod's Manual of 
Injurious Insects which has lately appeared, is a work of such importance to all 
•engaged in agricultural pursuits, that it is thought well to place a notice of it in 
our Annual Report so that such of our readers who have not seen it may know 
of its publication. We feel confident that a perusal of this work would well re- 
pay all those engaged in the cultivation of farm, orchard or garden crops. The 
study of economic entomology has made great progress during the decade which 
has elapsed since the appearance of the first edition of Miss Ormerod's Manual in 
1881, and this progress is to a large measure due to the unceasing labours of this 
talented lady. Her annual reports are eagerly looked for by thousands of farmers 
in Great Britain and by scientific students in all parts of the world. They give 
a concise account of the insect attacks which have occurred in the British Isles 
during the year which has followed the issue of the previous report. A feature 
of these reports is their practical nature, every attention being given to the best, 
not the largest number of, remedies for each insect mentioned. This character is 
also very manifest, as might have been expected, in this more important work of 
Miss Ormerod's. There is no writer upon the practical science of combating the 
ravages of insects which attack crops, in Australia, India, South Africa, the 
United States, Canada, or elsewhere, who does not quote her opinion as the high- 
est authority upon any subject which she has written about. This is due to the 
careful and thorough manner in which all of her investigations are carried out. 
In the last number of " Insect Life " issued by the United States Department of 
Agriculture and edited by the highest living authorities upon economic entomo- 
logy, the following complimentary notice of this work appears : — " On account of 
its convenient size, admirable arrangement, plain language, and abundant illus- 
tration, it is almost a model of what such a work should be." — " Miss 
Ormerod's work cannot be too highly commended." 

Now the merits above enumerated are just the points which render this work 
so valuable, for it is perfectly intelligible to anyone who can read, and thus 
becomes almost indispensable to every farmer, gardener, or fruit grower, who 
would carry on his work in the most successful manner. Nor is this the case in 
England alone, where the work was written, for so many of the actual insects 
treated are common as agricultural pests both in Europe and in North America, 
and moreover the general principles recommended for the prevention of injury 
are applicable all the world over. Besides this from the fact that most of our 
most injurious insects are imported species, we know not at what moment any of 
those so well treated of in this work, may not appear in our midst as a serious 
iax upon our cultivated crops. The different kinds of attacks are arranged 
alphabetically under the three headings, Food Crops, Forest Trees, and Fruit. 
>Some new attacks not mentioned in the first edition and which appeared sub- 



102 



sequently to its issue, are now paid particular attention to, amongst these are the 
Hessian Fly, Stem Eel-worms and the Wheat Bulb-iiy. The information concern- 
ing all the attacks treated of in both editions has been largely augmented and 
the special subjects of Wire worms, Turnip-llea-beetle, Mustard Beetle, and Hop 
Aphis are entered on at length. 

Special attention has been given to the presentation of the latest developments 
in the way of preventive measures. Attention is drawn to the use of chemical 
manures which are highly beneficial as plant-stimulants (but by no means so to 
vegetable-feeding grubs and maggots), and the many kinds of agricultural imple- 
ments, by which the soil can be more completely broken up on the surface, or the 
surface more thoroughly buried down than was formerly the case, these are of 
great assistance to us. As an Appendix to the Manual is given a short and 
copiously illustrated " Introduction to Entomology," where, in the plainest 
possible language, the structure and changes of insects are described, and illustra- 
tions and definitions of the various natural orders into which they are classified 
are given, so as to " enable the observer of a crop attack to tell at least what kind 
of insect is before him," and also " in the list of the orders of insects, notes are 
given of the most observable of the characteristic points by which the insects 
composing these different orders may be distinguished from each other." 

A glossary of terms and a full index render this work very complete. It 
contains 410 pages, and is illustrated with 155 excellent figures, many of them 
from the authoress's own pencil. The frontispiece is a portrait of the authoress 
which has been prefixed by desire of many friends and will be of interest to many 
in this country who have not had the pleasure of meeting Miss Ormerod. The 
manual is well printed, neatly bound in cloth, and the small price at which it i& 
published (SI. 25) brings it within the reach of all. 

There are many articles in the manual which are of interest to Canadian 
readers as they describe insects which also occur here — amongst these the follow- 
ing may be mentioned : 

The Bean Weevil (Bruchus granarius). — Treating the seed with a solution 
of sulphate of copper and carbolic acid are recommended, also soaking the seed 
beans for some time before they are sown, or dropping them for one minute inta 
boiling water. 

The Cabbage Aphis (Aphis hrassicce). — In garden cultivation drenching the- 
infested plant with soap-suds is practicable, syringing with an infusion of tobacco 
in lime-water has been found useful and dusting • with caustic lime and soot are 
stated to be very eflfective in getting rid of the aphis. 

The Small White Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris rapoe). — The greatest confi- 
dence seems to be placed in strencrthening the plant, so as to enable it to outgrow 
the attacks of the caterpillars. In this country this is insufficient and undoubtedly 
the best remedy is pyre thrum powder reduced with 4 times its weight of 
common flour or finely sifted lime and then dusted over the plants. 

Cabbage Fly (Anthomyia brassicce). — The use of barn-yard manure imme- 
diately before a cabbage crop seems to induce attack, also the continuous culti- 
vation of cabbages on the same ground. The value of lime and ashes are 
emphasized by the experience of correspondents. 

Carrot Fly {Psila rosce). — This is an uncommon insect in Canada ; but is- 
found here and is liable at any time to develop in numbers. The remedies suggested 
consist chiefly of, careful cultivation of the soil so as to induce a vigorous growth,, 
care at the time of thinning the rows and the use of obnoxious materials to deter 
the females from egg-laying. 



103 



Stem Eelworm (Tylenchus devastatrix). — " Clover sickness " and " Tulip, 
root " in oats are caused by small nematode worms. We have not so far observed 
these in Canada, but they have been studied in the United States and we should 
be on our guard, Some points in the life-history of the species are given in re- 
gard to which some common-sense remedies are suggested, such as not planting 
a. crop liable to attack upon infested ground. It is shown that several plants are 
injured by the worms and that they can survive the operation of digestion in 
animals fed on infested fodder. It is the same species which causes stem-sickness 
in clover and " tulip-root " in oats. Grain Aphis Si'pJionoiDhora granaria, Kirby. 
Early maturing varieties of grain are recommended. The full life-history of this 
insect is still unknown. 

Daddy Loxglegs (Tipulce). — These troublesome insects are treated at some 
length. Amongst measures to be taken to lessen the quantity of eggs laid, are 
mowing down coarse vegetation in places suitable for the females to lay eggs, and 
feeding sheep on infested pastures. Draining of low land and the use of quick- 
acting fertilisers are suggested. 

Hessian Fly (Cecidomyia destrvuctor). — This well known pest has been 
specially studied by Miss Ormerod. The chief remedies are burning infested 
stubble and screenings, the selection of varieties least attacked, and the use of 
special fertilisers in the spring to strengthen injured plants. 

Wheat Midge {Cecidomyia tritici). — Deep plowing directly after harvest 
and the destruction of screenings seem to be the best remedies. 
- ;:;5£Thrips (Thrips cerealium), — Deep ploughing and clean farming are thought 
to be the best remedies. 

Wireworms (larvae of the Click Beetles). — " Wireworms may perhaps be said 
to do the greatest amount of mischief of any of our farm pests ; they destroy root 
grain and fodder crops." So Miss Ormerod begins her article and it is almost as 
true for some parts of Canada. Great stress is laid on the preparation of the land 
before a crop liable to attack. Autumn feeding with sheep and the use of gas- 
lime and salt are highly spoken of. Sir Richard Keene writes If the lea is 
broken for oats (our general crop) it is sure to be attacked more or less by wire- 
worms ; I top-dress with 4 cwt. agricultural salt, 2 cwt. superphosphate and 
sometimes 1 cwt. nitrate of soda. I have never known this to fail if applied in 
time. If the lea is broken in autumn, to have green crops in the following year, 
I have the land worked as much as possible and apply 8 tons hot lime to the 
statute acre ; lime as hot as possible. I always sow the seed with a liberal dress- 
ing of farmyard dung, for such crops as mangold, turnip, cabbage, carrot, and 
parsnip, and I use the following dressing of artificial : — 2 cwt. best bone meal, 1 
cwt. nitrate of soda, and 3 cwt. common salt. I find the plants are soon forced 
up beyond the reach of damage. 

Hop Aphis (Phorodon humuli). — This is another insect which sometimes 
does enormous injury in Europe, and which has received particular attention from 
both the authoress and Prof. Riley whose studies have supplied important links in 
the life-chain of this insect. The remedies most to be relied on are the treatment 
of plum trees early in the season to destroy the first brood of aphis and after- 
wards washing or spraying the hop plants when they are found to be infested. 

Red Spider (Tetranychus telarius). — This is another of the dire enemies of 
the hop as well as many other plants. Washes containing sulphur or kerosene 
are suo:s:ested. 

^Iangold or Beet Fly {Anthomyia hetce). — The remedy most spoken of is 
high cultivation ; but the benefits of a kerosene emulsion are suggested by the 
•experience of one of the correspondents quoted. 



104 



Onion Fly (Anthomyia ceparum) — The remedies offered for this well-known 
pest are careful preparation of ground which has not borne onions the previous 
year, growing them in trenches so that the bulb may be kept covered, the re- 
moval of diseased bulbs, and the treatment of infested plants with what is 
practically a kerosene emulsion or simply with soap suds. 

Slugs. — These troublesome mollusks are not insects but are treated in the 
manual because so frequently sent in by people who suppose they are. Gas-lime, 
lime, and salt if applied frequently at short intervals are sure remedies. 

The Diamond-back Moth {Plutella cruciferarum). — This insect frequently 
so injurious to cabbages in this country is spoken of as an occasional pest of 
turnips. A dry dressing of gas-lime, one bushel ; lime from the kiln, one bushel ; 
sulphur, 6 pounds ; and soot, 10 lbs., was found useful. 

In Part II. " Forest Trees and the Insects that injure them," theie are no 
insects which actually injure our forest trees in Canada although the general 
principles of prevention and remedy give valuable suggestions. 

In Part III. " Fruit Crops and Insects that injure them," we find many too 
well known enemies of the orchardist. 

The Woolly Aphis (Schizoneura lanigera). — Of the many remedies given 
it seems to us that the treatment of the stem inhabiting form with soap-washes j 
or kerosene emulsion will be the most effective, and the latter is probably the l| 
best remedy for the root inhabiting form which is so difficult to reach. 

Apple Aphis (Aphis moli). — Syringing with soft-soap and other washes is 
recommended. 

Codling Moth (Carpocapsa pomonella). — Scraping, banding, and washing 
the trees, form the chief remedies. Spraying with Paris green. This is the first 
mention of this now universally used American remedy. Up to last year Paris 
green as an insecticide was unknown in England. Now however at Miss 
Ormerod's suggestion it has been tried and has proved so successful that ' there is 
no doubt that it will rise rapidly in public favour. Probably some from careless- 
ness or recklessness, in not following the instructions closely, will put on the 
washes too strong and injure the foliage ; but the benefits which will follow its 
adoption will be so enormous that Miss Ormerod will speedily be recognised as a 
public benefactor by thousands of the ignorant educated people in Great Britain 
who " did not know that grubs and creeping things were of any interest to them." 

Mussel Scale (Mytilasj^is pomorum). — This is our familiar oyster-shell 
bark louse. The usual soap washes in spring and the mechanical removal of the 
scales are recommended. 

Gooseberry Saw-fly {Xematiis rihesii, Curtis). — Great stress is laid on the 
value of removing the surface soil from beneath bushes which have been infested 
by the larvae. Mention is made of some mixtures containing soot or sulphur. 
We are surprised to and that " white hellebore " is not mentioned. 

Shot Borer " Pear Blight " {Xyleborus dispar). — A most complete article 
is given on this insect which has been very injurious in our Maritime Provinces 
for some years ; preventive remedies in the shape of washes to prevent the females 
from laying eggs are given. 

Mottled Umber Moth (hyhernia defoliaria). — This moth is interesting to 
us from the fact that it has been taken on three occasions in Vancouver Island 
by Rev. George W. Taylor — whether indigenous or introduced is uncertain. 

This is one of several moths which have been very injurious for many years 
in England but which have been successfully treated during the past season with 
Paris green. A long article detailing the experiments of the Evesham Fruit 
Conference with Paris green, under Miss Ormerod's guidance, gives an account of 
the successful introduction of Paris green into England as an insecticide. J. r. 



105 



The Russian Parasite of the Hessian Fly. — Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod, 
the eminent consulting entomologist of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
in a communication to the Mark Lane Express, thus refers to the discovery of 
this parasite : — 

" It is announced in the United States that Professor C. V. Riley, the well- 
^nown entomologist to the United States Department of Agriculture, has intro- 
duced into that country living specimens of Semioiellus nigripes, a Russian 
parasite of the Hessian tly, in order to acclimatize it. By its aid he hopes to 
practically exterminate the pests in that country. Curiously enough he obtained 
this parasite from England, and it is said that quite a number have been reared 
for the purpose. If this is the case, there should be no difficulty in the way of 
adopting the same means of getting rid of the Hessian fly in this country, and 
it would be interesting to have Miss E. A. Ormerod's opinion on the subject." 

My opinion is that, quite certainly, it would be worse than useless (in this 
country) to make any such attempt. In the United States of America things 
are on a very different footing. There are ditferenoes in temperature, conditions 
of climate, and also of area of cropping, and other agricultural arrangements 
which must aflect this question. Likewise there are special arrangements at the 
Government experimental stations for rearing insects, and skilled Government 
entomologists who can trustworthily examine the collections before they are 
turned loose on the country. 

The parasite fly (the Semiotellus nigripes) is only about one! line long, and 
without the help of a magnifying glass and some technical knowledge it would 
be impossible for any but skilled entomologists to be certain whether many pests 
were not included amongst the parasites which they set free. Also it is to be 
remembered for the most part insects pair, lay eggs, and die very shortly after 
they make their appearance from the chrysalids, but even supposing these 
minute creatures lived on awhile, where are they to be taken to ? J 

We do not know what corn is infested until attack is thoroughly set up, for 
the most part till the mischief is so advanced that the time for action of the 
parasite is past ; and at a vast expense the intended destroyers would in many 
cases be carried where there was nothing to destroy. 

This work of rearing could not be done on a broad scale — that is, by collec- 
tions from the threshing machine by farmers — and the payment to a staff of 
collectors, rearers, and distributors would involve enormous outlay. 

The present plan of destroying the Hessian fly chrysalids in the fine 
screenings is much the safest, and also has, for this country, the stated approval 
of Prof. Riley himself It is easily done, costs scarcely anything, and causes no 
loss; and thus, though we destroy the parasites (of which there are several 
kinds), we also quite certainly destroy the pest. 



8 (en.) 



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3 2044 106 256 761 



Date Due 

MAY 2 4 '17 I 




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